María-Ángeles Nohales

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Viroids, due to their small size and lack of protein-coding capacity, must rely essentially on their hosts for replication. Intriguingly, viroids have evolved the ability to replicate in two cellular organella, the nucleus (family Pospiviroidae) and the chloroplast (family Avsunviroidae). Viroid replication proceeds through an RNA-based rolling-circle(More)
Viroids are a unique class of noncoding RNAs: composed of only a circular, single-stranded molecule of 246-401 nt, they manage to replicate, move, circumvent host defenses, and frequently induce disease in higher plants. Viroids replicate through an RNA-to-RNA rolling-circle mechanism consisting of transcription of oligomeric viroid RNA intermediates,(More)
Viroids and viroid-like satellite RNAs from plants, and the human hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA share some properties that include small size, circularity and replication through a rolling-circle mechanism. Replication occurs in different cell compartments (nucleus, chloroplast and membrane-associated cytoplasmatic vesicles) and has three steps: RNA(More)
Bacteria and archaea contain a 2'-5' RNA ligase that seals in vitro 2',3'-cyclic phosphodiester and 5'-hydroxyl RNA termini, generating a 2',5'-phosphodiester bond. In our search for an RNA ligase able to circularize the monomeric linear replication intermediates of viroids belonging to the family Avsunviroidae, which replicate in the chloroplast, we have(More)
Avocado sunblotch viroid, peach latent mosaic viroid, chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid, and eggplant latent viroid (ELVd), the four recognized members of the family Avsunviroidae, replicate through the symmetric pathway of an RNA-to-RNA rolling-circle mechanism in chloroplasts of infected cells. Viroid oligomeric transcripts of both polarities contain(More)
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