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Standard state-machine replication involves consensus on a sequence of totally ordered requests through, for example, the Paxos protocol. Such a sequential execution model is becoming outdated on prevalent multi-core servers. Highly concurrent executions on multi-core architectures introduce non-determinism related to thread scheduling and lock contentions,(More)
MODIST is the first model checker designed for transparently checking unmodified distributed systems running on unmodified operating systems. It achieves this transparency via a novel architecture: a thin interposition layer exposes all actions in a distributed system and a centralized, OS-independent model checking engine explores these actions(More)
Peer-to-peer networks often use incentive policies to encourage cooperation between nodes. Such systems are generally susceptible to collusion by groups of users in order to gain unfair advantages over others. While techniques have been proposed to combat Web spam collusion, there are few measurements of real collusion in deployed systems. In this paper, we(More)
The Ret receptor tyrosine kinase mediates physiological signals of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family ligands (GFLs) and is essential for postnatal survival in mice. It is implicated in a number of human diseases and developmental abnormalities. Here, we describe our analyses of mice expressing a Ret mutant (RetDN) with diminished(More)
Much work has been done to address the need for incentive models in real deployed peer-to-peer networks. In this paper, we discuss problems found with the incentive model in a large, deployed peer-to-peer network, Maze. We evaluate several alternatives, and propose an incentive system that generates preferences for well-behaved nodes while correctly(More)
BACKGROUND Asthma is a complex disease characterized by striking ethnic disparities not explained entirely by environmental, social, cultural, or economic factors. Of the limited genetic studies performed on populations of African descent, notable differences in susceptibility allele frequencies have been observed. OBJECTIVES We sought to test the(More)
Defects in clearance of dying cells have been proposed to underlie the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Mice lacking molecules associated with dying cell clearance develop SLE-like disease, and phagocytes from patients with SLE often display defective clearance and increased inflammatory cytokine production when exposed to dying cells in(More)