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We have examined the regulation of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) activity in the mitotic and meiotic cell cycles of Xenopus laevis eggs and oocytes. To this end, we developed a method for the small scale extraction of eggs and oocytes and measured MPF activity in extracts by a dilution end point assay. We find that in oocytes, MPF activity appears(More)
The dorsal-ventral axis in frog embryos is specified during the first cell cycle, when the cortex rotates relative to the cytoplasmic core along parallel microtubules associated with the core. Cytoplasmic transfer experiments suggest that dorsal determinants are transported 90 degrees from the vegetal pole to the dorsal equator, even though the cortex(More)
The dorsoventral body axis in amphibian embryos is established by a rotation of the outer cortex relative to the inner cytoplasmic core. This cortical rotation depends on microtubules and is correlated with a parallel array of microtubules just inside the vegetal cortex. Since the parallel array moves with the inner cytoplasm and most of its microtubules(More)
The secondary structure of the P5abc subdomain (a 56-nt RNA) of the Tetrahymena thermophila group I intron ribozyme has been determined by NMR. Its base pairing in aqueous solution in the absence of magnesium ions is significantly different from the RNA in a crystal but is consistent with thermodynamic predictions. On addition of magnesium ions, the RNA(More)
We applied two experiments useful in the study of ligand-regulated DNA binding proteins to AraC, the dimeric regulator of the Escherichia coli l-arabinose operon. In the absence of arabinose, AraC prefers to loop DNA by binding to two half-sites that are separated by 210 base pairs, and in the presence of arabinose it prefers to bind to adjacently located(More)
We describe a collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for Saccoglossus kowalevskii, a direct-developing hemichordate valuable for evolutionary comparisons with chordates. The 202,175 ESTs represent 163,633 arrayed clones carrying cDNAs prepared from embryonic libraries, and they assemble into 13,677 continuous sequences (contigs), leaving 10,896(More)
AraC protein, the regulator of the l-arabinose operon in Escherichia coli has been postulated to function by a light switch mechanism. According to this mechanism, it should be possible to find mutations in the DNA-binding domain of AraC that result in weaker arm-DNA-binding domain interactions and which make the protein constitutive, that is, it no longer(More)
Constitutive mutations were sought and found in the N-terminal arm of the Escherichia coli regulatory protein of the arabinose operon, AraC protein. A new mutation, N16D, was of particular interest. Asn-16 is not seen in the crystal structure of the AraC dimerization domain determined in the absence of arabinose, because the N-terminal arm 18 residues are(More)
To understand the RNA-folding problem, we must know the extent to which RNA structure formation is hierarchical (tertiary folding of preformed secondary structure). Recently, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to show that Mg2+-dependent tertiary interactions force secondary structure rearrangement in the 56-nt tP5abc RNA, a truncated(More)