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Beta-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and beta-N-oxalylamino-L-alanine (BOAA) are chemically related excitant amino acids present in the seeds of Cycas circinalis and Lathyrus sativus, respectively. Consumption of these seeds has been linked to Guam amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (BMAA) and lathyrism (BOAA) (a form of primary lateral sclerosis). We report that(More)
The L-isomer of beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), present in free form in seed of Cycas circinalis, elicits in spinal cord cultures a pattern of acute postsynaptic neuronal vacuolation comparable to that induced by beta-N-oxalylamino-L-alanine (BOAA), an excitotoxic amino acid of greater potency isolated from seed of Lathyrus sativus. The neuronotoxic(More)
Temperature-sensitive immortalized neural cells may be utilized to produce genetically engineered neural transplants. We have used a similar approach with mdx myoblasts. Control and mdx myoblasts were immortalized with a recombinant retrovirus that effects the expression of a temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 large T antigen. The resultant cells divide(More)
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) exhibits diverse effects on growth and differentiation of a wide range of cell types. In the immune system, TGF-beta 1 is a potent inhibitor of T cell proliferation and certain T cell effector functions. However, TGF-beta 1 also enhances growth of T cells, predominantly of naive phenotype, and induces their(More)
Because of recent questions concerning the sensitivity of human tumor cells to neutrophil-induced oxidative injury, we studied six freshly obtained human ovarian cancer (OC) specimens. Stimulation of neutrophils (PMNs) by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) did not result in OC cytolysis during the first nine hours of incubation. However, three of six specimens(More)
Periconceptional folic acid supplementation is recommended to prevent congenital malformations, mainly neural tube defects, but only 7% of pregnant women in Saxony-Anhalt (Germany) take folic acid at least 4 weeks before conception and in the first 3 months of pregnancy. From March to June 2004, we sent standardized questionnaires about folic acid and its(More)