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BACKGROUND Cabozantinib is an oral, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) as well as MET and AXL, each of which has been implicated in the pathobiology of metastatic renal-cell carcinoma or in the development of resistance to antiangiogenic drugs. This randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial(More)
PURPOSE Sunitinib and sorafenib are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that have considerable efficacy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. TKI-associated cardiotoxicity was reported in approximately 10% of the patients. Detailed cardiovascular monitoring during TKI treatment may reveal early signs of myocardial damage. PATIENTS AND METHODS In this(More)
BACKGROUND Sunitinib and sorafenib are tyrosine kinase inhibitors that have important antitumor activity in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Hypothyroidism constitutes a commonly reported side effect of both drugs, and particularly of sunitinib. The objective of this analysis was to investigate whether the occurrence of hypothyroidism during(More)
BACKGROUND With the advent of targeted therapies, many treatment options in the first-line setting of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mccRCC) have emerged. Guidelines and randomized trial reports usually do not elucidate the decision criteria for the different treatment options. In order to extract the decision criteria for the optimal therapy(More)
Various cytokine combinations have been tested for efficacy in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRCC). Because several immunologic synergisms between granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating-factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) have been demonstrated, this phase II trial was conducted on the efficacy and toxicity of subcutaneous,(More)
BACKGROUND Cabozantinib is an oral inhibitor of tyrosine kinases including MET, VEGFR, and AXL. The randomised phase 3 METEOR trial compared the efficacy and safety of cabozantinib versus the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma who progressed after previous VEGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor treatment. Here, we report the(More)
Targeted agents have improved prognosis for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), and they are changing therapeutic expectations with respect to long-term clinical outcomes for these patients. However, in order to obtain the maximum clinical benefit from targeted agents, effective therapy management is essential and includes optimization of(More)
Prognostic and predictive factors in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRCC) have been evaluated from untreated patients or patients on several different treatment approaches. The aim of this analysis was to define prognostic and predictive factors in patients treated uniformly with a low-dose outpatient cytokine combination. The relationship(More)
Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 2-3% of all malignancies. The most common subtype [85%] is the clear cell variant. A total of 30% of patients present with metastatic disease at diagnosis and another 30-40% will develop metastases during the course of the disease. Conventional cancer treatment is not effective, but cytokines including recombinant(More)
First-line therapies available for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have increased rapidly with the recent introduction of three novel agents: sunitinib, temsirolimus and bevacizumab (in combination with interferon [IFN]). This expansion means that the selection of the optimal therapy for individual patients has become more difficult and increasingly(More)