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The cellular basis of age-related tissue deterioration remains largely obscure. The ability to activate compensatory mechanisms in response to environmental stress is an important factor for survival and maintenance of cellular functions. Autophagy is activated both under short and prolonged stress and is required to clear the cell of dysfunctional(More)
We describe a dual-trap force-clamp configuration that applies constant loads between a binding protein and an intermittently interacting biological polymer. The method has a measurement delay of only ∼10 μs, allows detection of interactions as brief as ∼100 μs and probes sub-nanometer conformational changes with a time resolution of tens of microseconds.(More)
In vitro motility assay (IVMA) experiments were performed to analyze the movement of actin filaments sliding on a pavement of myosin molecules at different [ATP] and [ADP]. In standard experimental conditions at [ATP] = 2 mM, about 80% of the actin filaments move in unloaded conditions with a constant velocity. However, a fraction of at least 20% static(More)
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