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AIM The study aimed to explore the possible causal nature of the association between alcohol consumption and HIV/AIDS. METHODS A review based on meta-analyses and reviews was conducted according to standard epidemiological criteria to distinguish causality from association, examining (i) the potential impact of alcohol on the incidence of HIV and (ii)(More)
The liver disease characteristic of alcohol dependence encompasses three main related entities: steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Alcoholic cirrhosis is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake among injecting drug users is a major contributor to transmission of viral infections, such as human immunodeficiency virus(More)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) that are characterized by chronic periods of exacerbation and remission. Research into the immunopathogenesis of IBD adds support to the theory that the disease results from a dysfunctional regulation of the immune system that leads to the polarization of(More)
OBJECTIVES To study the effect of cytochrome P450 2E1-inducers on methotrexate (MTX)-induced cytotoxicity in human hepatocytes, and investigate the role of silymarin in preventing this toxicity. DESIGN AND METHODS Cells were exposed to MTX in the presence of either ethanol (EtOH) or acetaminophen (APAP), or either combined with silymarin (S). Apoptosis(More)
Many processes related to the consumption or breakdown of alcohol that contribute to alcohol-induced liver disease are mediated by small proteins known as cytokines, which are produced and secreted by liver cells and many other cells throughout the body. Through a variety of actions, cytokines regulate certain biochemical. processes in the cells that(More)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) encompassed several chronic inflammatory disorders leading to damage of the gastrointestinal tract (GI). The 2 principal forms of these disorders are ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD). Bacteria are involved in the etiology of IBD, and the genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and lifestyle factors can(More)
This study reports on measurement of the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in vitro on using the human hepatocyte cell line HepG2. Cells were incubated in the presence of increasing ethanol concentrations (10-80 mM). Cytotoxicity was quantitated spectrophotometrically both by the metabolism of the tetrazolium dye MTT and by the release into the medium of LDH(More)
In patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) the immune system leads to the polarization of intestinal immune cells towards a T helper one (Th1) pro-inflammatory response. The immunologic factors intervene in intestinal homeostasis and initiate the development of intestinal mucosal inflammation. Cytokines, which are important regulators of(More)
  • M G Neuman
  • 2001
Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, and the elimination of apoptotic cells are crucial factors in the maintenance of liver health Apoptosis allows hepatocytes to die without provoking a potentially harmful inflammatory response In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis is tightly controlled and regulated via several mechanisms, including Fas/Fas ligand(More)
OBJECTIVES To measure levels of soluble cytochrome c, a clinical marker of apoptosis in patients with liver disease; determine whether soluble cytochrome c is derived from the liver; and correlate soluble cytochrome c level with histology and disease activity. DESIGN Laboratory research study with comparison group. SETTING Liver Institute, at the Rabin(More)