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We present an analysis of instructional design quality of 76 randomly selected Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). The quality of MOOCs was determined from first principles of instruction, using a course survey instrument. Two types of MOOCs (xMOOCs and cMOOCs) were analysed and their instructional design quality was assessed and compared. We found that(More)
New vaccines against pertussis are needed to evoke full protection and long-lasting immunological memory starting from the first administration in neonates--the major target of the life-threatening pertussis infection. A novel live attenuated Bordetella pertussis vaccine strain, BPZE1, has been developed by eliminating or detoxifying three important B.(More)
Surface-layer proteins (SLPs) have been detected in all Clostridium difficile strains and play a role in adhesion, although an involvement in the inflammatory process may also be supposed, as they cover the bacterial surface and are immunodominant antigens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory properties of SLPs obtained from(More)
In 2005, in accordance with recommendations made by the European Medicines Agency, the Italian Drug Agency ordered withdrawal of the hexavalent Hexavac(®) vaccine (Sanofi Pasteur MSD) from the market. Concerns had been raised about the low immunogenicity of the hepatitis B virus component of the vaccine, assessed by measurement of serum antibody levels, and(More)
Measurement of antigen-specific T cell responses is an adjunctive parameter to evaluate protection induced by a previous Bordetella pertussis infection or vaccination. The assessment of T cell responses is technically complex and usually performed on fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The objective of this study was to identify simplified(More)
Respiratory Syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract viral infection in young children and a major cause of winter hospitalization. Bordetella pertussis is a common cause of bacterial lung disease, affecting a similar age group. Although vaccines are available for B. pertussis infection, disease rates have recently(More)
Approximately 40 million whooping cough cases and between 200,000 and 400,000 pertussis-linked deaths are recorded each year. Although several types of vaccines are licensed and widely used, Bordetella pertussis continues to circulate in populations with high vaccine coverage of infants and children due to the waning of protection induced by the(More)
Chlamydia pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen involved in the onset of chronic inflammatory pathologies. Dendritic cells (DC), are major players in spreading of C. pneumoniae from the lungs, a crucial step leading to disseminated infections. Less is known concerning modulation of DC functions consequent to encounter with the bacterium. In order to address(More)
The resurgence of pertussis suggests the need for greater efforts to understand the long-lasting protective responses induced by vaccination. In this paper we dissect the persistence of T memory responses induced by primary vaccination with two different acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines, hexavalent Hexavac® vaccine (Hexavac) (Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and(More)
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