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We have regularly observed alterations in the three-layered arrangement of cerebellar cortex surrounding fissura prima in normal adult and neonatal rats. In 90 of 110 rat brains analyzed, the cortical layers surrounding fissura prima were found to be altered from the four-layered (neonatal) or three-layered (adult) arrangement found in the majority of the(More)
In order to account for the development of sex differences in the brain, we took, as an integrative model, the vomeronasal pathway, which is involved in the control of reproductive physiology and behavior. The fact that brain sex differences take place in complex neural networks will help to develop a motivational theory of sex differences in reproductive(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection of the central nervous system is characterized by neuronal loss in discrete areas of the central nervous system. We have previously demonstrated that HIV-infected monocytes in culture with astroglial cells produce high levels (> or = 200 pg/ml) of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha). We(More)
Innervation of the clinically normal human corneal epithelium was investigated utilizing immunohistochemical and electron microscopic techniques. All corneal epithelial sheets examined demonstrated neuron specific enolase (NSE: a non-specific marker for neural elements), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP: a putative marker for sensory fibers), and(More)
Spanish histologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal, one of the most notable figures in Neuroscience, and winner, along with Camillo Golgi, of the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries on the structure of the nervous system, did not escape experimenting with some of the psychiatric techniques available at the time, mainly hypnotic(More)
This study determines the efficacy of nonfetal human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) for photoreceptor rescue utilizing the dystrophic RCS rat as an animal model. Eyes from 10- and 49-year-old donors were obtained through the Rochester Eye and Human Parts Bank. The RPE was isolated by enzymatic treatment of the choroid-RPE with 2% dispase for 30 min at 37(More)
Progesterone is one of a complex of hormones which influences the occurrence of maternal behavior in rats. The present study provides information on progesterone's mechanism and possible neural site(s) of action with respect to maternal responsiveness. Progesterone can exert cellular effects by acting on membrane receptors or by acting on intracellular(More)
Sex differences in GABA neurotransmitter have been described. We have studied the involvement of the GABAA receptor in sex differences in the brain and reproductive behaviour. Neonatal administration of the GABAA agonist diazepam to male rats facilitated the induction of maternal behaviour in adults, while the antagonist picrotoxin disrupted it in females.(More)
Previously, we have used descriptive pathology and histomorphometry, as well as functional testing to characterize the age-related retinal degeneration in the Fischer 344 rat. These studies suggested an association between Müller cells and photoreceptor cells in this process. The purpose of the present study was to further investigate the respective roles(More)
In seeing rats light flashes inhibit acoustic startle reflexes at short lead times. In contrast, visually impaired (light-blinded) rats show an early phase of exaggerated reflex expression, revealing the presence of pathological visual processing, and then an aberrant late phase of delayed inhibition. Grafting fetal retinal cells into the damaged retina(More)