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We have regularly observed alterations in the three-layered arrangement of cerebellar cortex surrounding fissura prima in normal adult and neonatal rats. In 90 of 110 rat brains analyzed, the cortical layers surrounding fissura prima were found to be altered from the four-layered (neonatal) or three-layered (adult) arrangement found in the majority of the(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection of the central nervous system is characterized by neuronal loss in discrete areas of the central nervous system. We have previously demonstrated that HIV-infected monocytes in culture with astroglial cells produce high levels (> or = 200 pg/ml) of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha). We(More)
Innervation of the clinically normal human corneal epithelium was investigated utilizing immunohistochemical and electron microscopic techniques. All corneal epithelial sheets examined demonstrated neuron specific enolase (NSE: a non-specific marker for neural elements), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP: a putative marker for sensory fibers), and(More)
Spanish histologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal, one of the most notable figures in Neuroscience, and winner, along with Camillo Golgi, of the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries on the structure of the nervous system, did not escape experimenting with some of the psychiatric techniques available at the time, mainly hypnotic(More)
This study determines the efficacy of nonfetal human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) for photoreceptor rescue utilizing the dystrophic RCS rat as an animal model. Eyes from 10- and 49-year-old donors were obtained through the Rochester Eye and Human Parts Bank. The RPE was isolated by enzymatic treatment of the choroid-RPE with 2% dispase for 30 min at 37(More)
Previously, we have used descriptive pathology and histomorphometry, as well as functional testing to characterize the age-related retinal degeneration in the Fischer 344 rat. These studies suggested an association between Müller cells and photoreceptor cells in this process. The purpose of the present study was to further investigate the respective roles(More)
We have previously described how the expression of photoreceptor cell degeneration in the Fischer 344 rat is affected by age, retinal topography, and gender. Degeneration in the central and equatorial regions progresses linearly with age throughout the life span of the animal, while the periphery of the male is subject to sudden and dramatic losses of cells(More)
PURPOSE The Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat suffers from a well-characterized, early-onset, and relentless form of photoreceptor cell degeneration. It has been shown that allografts of retinal pigment epithelial cells from normal perinatal rats have rescue effects in this condition. In preparation for human application, the authors determined whether(More)
In seeing rats light flashes inhibit acoustic startle reflexes at short lead times. In contrast, visually impaired (light-blinded) rats show an early phase of exaggerated reflex expression, revealing the presence of pathological visual processing, and then an aberrant late phase of delayed inhibition. Grafting fetal retinal cells into the damaged retina(More)
This study uses a water maze paradigm as a tool to assess posttransplantation changes in behavior associated with a visual stimulus. A set of dystrophic RCS rats received bilateral injections of freshly isolated human fetal RPE cells into the subretinal space of the superior equatorial hemisphere. Five age-matched control dystrophic RCS rats received(More)