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Evidence is presented that mitochondria are implicated in the previously described programmed cell death (PCD) process induced by acetic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In yeast cells undergoing a PCD process induced by acetic acid, translocation of cytochrome c (CytC) to the cytosol and reactive oxygen species production, two events known to be(More)
Recent evidence has revealed the occurrence of an apoptotic phenotype in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is inducible with oxidative stress. Here, exposure of S. cerevisiae to 20-200 mM acetic acid for 200 min at pH 3.0 resulted in cell death. Yeast mortality induced by 120-200 mM acid was not inhibited by cycloheximide and was accompanied by ultrastructural(More)
BACKGROUND Mycobacterium ulcerans disease, or Buruli ulcer (BU), is an indolent, necrotizing infection of skin, subcutaneous tissue and, occasionally, bones. It is the third most common human mycobacteriosis worldwide, after tuberculosis and leprosy. There is evidence that M. ulcerans is an environmental pathogen transmitted to humans from aquatic niches;(More)
BACKGROUND Buruli ulcer (BU) is a neglected necrotizing disease of the skin, subcutaneous tissue and bone, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. BU pathogenesis is associated with mycolactone, a lipidic exotoxin with cytotoxic and immunosuppressive properties. Since 2004, the World Health Organization recommends the treatment of BU with a combination of(More)
BACKGROUND Buruli ulcer (BU) is an emerging infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans that can result in extensive necrotizing cutaneous lesions due to the cytotoxic exotoxin mycolactone. There is no specific vaccine against BU but reports show some degree of cross-reactive protection conferred by M. bovis BCG immunization. Alternatively, an M.(More)
M ycobacterium ulcerans infection, which can cause Buruli ulcer, is the third most common human mycobacteriosis worldwide, after tuberculosis and leprosy. Buruli ulcer occurs predominantly in humid tropical areas of Asia, Latin America, and, mainly, Africa, where the incidence has been increasing, surpassing tuberculosis and leprosy in some regions [1].(More)
Biological cellular systems are groups of cells sharing a set of characteristics, mainly key function and origin. Phagocytes are crucial in the host defense against microbial infection. The previously proposed phagocyte cell systems including the most recent and presently prevailing one, the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), grouped mononuclear cells but(More)
An ample understanding of the complex interactions between host and pathogen will improve our ability to develop new prophylactic and therapeutic measures against infection. Precise classification of infectious agents in regards to their infective lifestyles in the host and corresponding pathogenic implications are required because clear concepts are(More)
BACKGROUND The reservoir and mode of transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, remain unknown. Ecological, genetic and epidemiological information nonetheless suggests that M. ulcerans may reside in aquatic protozoa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We experimentally infected Acanthamoeba polyphaga with M. ulcerans and(More)
BACKGROUND Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing disease of the skin, subcutaneous tissue and bone caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. It has been suggested that the immune response developed during the recommended rifampicin/streptomycin (RS) antibiotherapy is protective, contributing to bacterial clearance. On the other hand, paradoxical reactions have been(More)