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Spontaneous errors in DNA replication have been suggested to play a significant role in neoplastic transformation and to explain the chromosomal alterations seen in cancer cells. A defective replication factor could increase the mutation rate in clonal variants arising during tumour progression, but despite intensive efforts, increases in tumour cell(More)
Using in vitro gene amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mutation detection by the RNAase A mismatch cleavage method, we have examined c-K-ras genes in human pancreatic carcinomas. We used frozen tumor specimens and single 5 micron sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue surgically removed or obtained at autopsy.(More)
Cancers of the microsatellite mutator phenotype (MMP) show exaggerated genomic instability at simple repeat sequences. More than 50 percent (21 out of 41) of human MMP+ colon adenocarcinomas examined were found to have frameshift mutations in a tract of eight deoxyguanosines [(G)8] within BAX, a gene that promotes apoptosis. These mutations were absent in(More)
Genomic instability at simple repeated sequences (SRS) is a landmark for some sporadic and hereditary cancers of the colon. We have identified several human tumour cell lines with up to 1,000-fold increases in mutation rates for endogenous microsatellite sequences, relative to normal cells or tumour cells without the mutator phenotype and show that they are(More)
The majority of tumors from hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families and a subset of unselected gastrointestinal and endometrial tumors exhibit a microsatellite mutator phenotype (MMP) that leads to the accumulation of hundreds of thousands of clonal mutations in simple repeat sequences. The mutated genes with positive or negative roles in cell(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Colon cancer of the microsatellite mutator phenotype (MMP) exhibits significant genotype differences from cancer without the MMP. Twenty-nine MMP-positive gastric cancers were analyzed to clarify if these genotype differences were also associated with distinctive clinicopathologic features. METHODS Alterations of p53, beta2-microglobulin(More)
Cancer cells showing microsatellite instability (MSI) demonstrate a high frequency of acquired frameshift mutations that result in the generation of nonsense mutations. RNA transcripts carrying these nonsense mutations are usually targeted for degradation through the nonsense mediated decay (NMD) pathway. Blocking this pathway with drugs such as emitine,(More)
RNAse A mismatch cleavage analysis of 66 primary human colon tumors reveals a high incidence of K-ras genes with mutations at position 12. No apparent correlation was found between the presence of mutant oncogenes and the degree of invasiveness of the tumours but evidence for ras mutational activation in premalignant tissue was obtained.