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Spontaneous errors in DNA replication have been suggested to play a significant role in neoplastic transformation and to explain the chromosomal alterations seen in cancer cells. A defective replication factor could increase the mutation rate in clonal variants arising during tumour progression, but despite intensive efforts, increases in tumour cell(More)
Using in vitro gene amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mutation detection by the RNAase A mismatch cleavage method, we have examined c-K-ras genes in human pancreatic carcinomas. We used frozen tumor specimens and single 5 micron sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue surgically removed or obtained at autopsy.(More)
Genomic instability at simple repeated sequences (SRS) is a landmark for some sporadic and hereditary cancers of the colon. We have identified several human tumour cell lines with up to 1,000-fold increases in mutation rates for endogenous microsatellite sequences, relative to normal cells or tumour cells without the mutator phenotype and show that they are(More)
Cancers of the microsatellite mutator phenotype (MMP) show exaggerated genomic instability at simple repeat sequences. More than 50 percent (21 out of 41) of human MMP+ colon adenocarcinomas examined were found to have frameshift mutations in a tract of eight deoxyguanosines [(G)8] within BAX, a gene that promotes apoptosis. These mutations were absent in(More)
We have screened different cultured cell lines established from human tumors for the ability of their DNAs to induce transformed foci in NIH/3T3 cells. Based on restriction endonuclease digestions and the presence of human sequences in mouse transformants, we conclude that five of these human tumor cell lines contain a gene or genes capable of transforming(More)
A significant percentage of human tumors contain activated ras oncogenes that have acquired oncogenic potential as a result of somatic point mutations at codon 12 or 61 of the encoded ras gene product. We report here a method to detect and characterize mutations in ras genes that is based on the ability of pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A; EC to(More)
The majority of tumors from hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families and a subset of unselected gastrointestinal and endometrial tumors exhibit a microsatellite mutator phenotype (MMP) that leads to the accumulation of hundreds of thousands of clonal mutations in simple repeat sequences. The mutated genes with positive or negative roles in cell(More)
Dysregulation of normal programmed cell death mechanisms plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of breast cancer, as well as in responses of tumors to therapeutic intervention. Overexpression of anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) has been implicated in cancer chemoresistance, whereas high levels of(More)
Human colorectal tumors commonly contain mutations in Ki-ras but rarely, if ever, in Ha-ras. The selectivity for Ki-ras mutations in this tumor was explored using the HD6-4 colon epithelial cell line which contains no ras mutations. After adhesion to an extracellular matrix, HD6-4 cells polarize into columnar goblet cells with distinct apical and basal(More)