Manuel Neves-e-Castro

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During hormone treatments for the relief of the symptoms of postmenopausal women a number of side effects may occur. Some may be due to the wrong choice of the steroids used for treatment or to the route of administration. However, the more important ones deserving much attention are the rare occurrences of malignancies of the uterus and ovaries. The risk(More)
In a reanalysis of the Million Women Study (MWS), their authors concluded that prolonged use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women increases the risk of ovarian cancer. Although statistically significant their results are clinically irrelevant, since the attributable risk over 5 years is only 4 per 10 000 HRT users, a figure that is(More)
Dormant breast cancer cells are a reality that cannot be overlooked. They may stay dormant either after a spread of cancer cells caused by surgery or after being generated by spontaneous or induced mutations in the course of breast gland growth. Some cases are presented in support of both possibilities, followed by a critical appraisal of the factors that(More)
Menopausal women should not consider that hormonal treatment is an obligatory long-term commitment. Estrogen-based treatments are extremely effective for vasomotor symptom relief and for vaginal atrophy. HRT also is one of several effective methods for the primary prevention of osteoporosis. If trials were done early after the menopause when the endothelium(More)