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We recently demonstrated that stress-induced cognitive deficits in rats do not correlate with hippocampal neuronal loss. Working on the premise that subtle structural changes may however be involved, we here evaluated the effects of chronic stress on hippocampal dendrite morphology, the volume of the mossy fiber system, and number and morphology of synapses(More)
Neurons in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN) display structural and biochemical sex differences in response to estrogen. Despite this fact, reports on sex differences in the morphology of the VMN are restricted to its volume and synaptic patterning. The aim of this study was to characterize the neuroanatomical sexual dimorphisms in the VMN(More)
Although cognitive dysfunction is a common finding in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) its pathogenesis remains controversial. Given the involvement of the hippocampal formation in the processing of cognitive information and the scarcity of quantitative studies in this brain region, we have examined, using stereological methods, the(More)
We have examined if long-term (13 months) alcohol consumption and the same treatment followed by a 6-week withdrawal period cause different neuropathological changes in rats. Spatial reference and working memory of alcohol-consuming and withdrawn rats were evaluated by comparison of their performance with age-matched controls in the Morris water maze. In(More)
Prolonged seizures induced by neurotoxins or intracranial electrical stimulation provoke death of hippocampal neurons, which results in conspicuous learning and memory deficits. We examined whether repeated brief seizures elicited by electroconvulsive shock (ECS) can also deteriorate hippocampal structure and function. Adult Wistar rats were administered(More)
Thyroid hormone deficiency has long been considered to affect profoundly such cognitive functions as learning and memory, which are known to depend on the structural integrity of the hippocampal formation. Since we previously found that the number of granule cells of the dentate gyrus is reduced in hypothyroid animals, we decided to extend our observations(More)
We have examined the behavioral and neuroanatomical effects of long-term alcohol intake in rats ingesting a 20% solution of ethanol for 30 weeks. Previous studies have shown that this treatment provokes neuronal degeneration in the hippocampal formation, which occurs in parallel with remodeling processes. Spatial reference and working memory of alcohol-fed(More)
The amyloid-related cell (ARC) of the neuritic plaques of Alzheimer's disease revealed numerous cytoplasmic projections surrounding extracellular amyloid material. It is proposed that ARC-coated vesicles fuse with the cell membrane, forming coated pits, which may empty their secretory material into the extracellular space where polymerization of amyloid(More)
Adult male rats were treated chronically with the selective type II corticosteroid receptor agonist dexamethasone, with dexamethasone plus aldosterone, a selective type I receptor agonist, and with a supraphysiological dose of corticosterone sufficient to occupy both type I and type II receptors; injection-free and oil (vehicle)-treated rats served as(More)