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INTRODUCTION In critically ill patients sudden changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are not instantly followed by parallel changes in serum creatinine. The aim of the present study was to analyze the utility of serum cystatin C as a marker of renal function in these patients. METHODS Serum creatinine, serum cystatin C and 24-hour creatinine(More)
This paper presents a model for the transient response of a switched capacitor integrator. This new model takes into account the different equivalent loads of the amplifier at its slewing and non-slewing modes. The new equivalent load scheme is called dynamic loading. Unlike previous models the ratio between slewing and non-slewing amplifier loads is(More)
The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) defines a capstone design course as an integrating experience that draws together diverse elements of the curriculum and develops student competence by focusing both technical and non-technical skills in solving engineering problems. In a Computer Engineering (CE) curriculum, such integration(More)
— A high-level partitioning methodology is introduced, which uses formulation-level discrete signal transform properties to provide improved results for their partitioning to distributed hardware architectures. We discuss how discrete signal transform characteristics were taken into account to focus design exploration during partitioning. Additionally, a(More)
—Sigma–delta Modulators (61Ms) are cornerstone elements in oversampled analog-to-digital converters and digital-to-analog converters (DACs). Although transistor-level simulation is the most accurate approach known for these components , this method becomes impractical for complex systems due to its long computational time requirements. Behavioral modeling(More)
— Partitioning is an essential step in the implementation of algorithms to distributed hardware architectures (DHAs) such as multi-FPGA boards. While numerous approaches working at the structural level have been reported, techniques targeted at higher levels are less common. Moreover, when dealing with discrete signal transforms (DSTs), formulation-level(More)
— This paper proposes a symbolic node admittance matrix representation approach to the behavioral modeling of switched capacitor (SC) integrators. This new model provides a better representation of the node voltage evolutions without the need for a fixed time step in the system. The newly proposed mode provides a more reliable behavioral model of the(More)