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BACKGROUND To reduce the costs of maintaining a poliovirus immunization base in low-income areas, we assessed the extent of priming immune responses after the administration of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). METHODS We compared the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a fractional dose of IPV (one fifth of a full dose) administered intradermally(More)
BACKGROUND As part of an evaluation of strategies to make inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) affordable for developing countries, we conducted a clinical trial of fractional doses of IPV in Cuba. METHODS We compared the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of fractional-dose IPV (0.1 mL, or 1/5 of a full dose) given intradermally using a needle-free jet(More)
INTRODUCTION The World Health Organization recommends that, as part of the new polio endgame, a dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) be introduced by the end of 2015 in all countries using only oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Administration of fractional dose (1/5th of full dose) IPV (fIPV) intradermally may reduce costs, but its administration is(More)
Glycoconjugate vaccines provide effective prophylaxis against bacterial infections. To date, however, no commercial vaccine has been available in which the key carbohydrate antigens are produced synthetically. We describe the large-scale synthesis, pharmaceutical development, and clinical evaluation of a conjugate vaccine composed of a synthetic capsular(More)
Since 1989, we have been involved in the development of a vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type b. The new vaccine is based on the conjugation of synthetic oligosaccharides to tetanus toxoid. Our main goals have been (i) to verify the feasibility of using the synthetic antigen and (ii) to search for new production alternatives for this important(More)
INTRODUCTION The World Health Organization recommends that as part of the polio end-game strategy a dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) be introduced by the end of 2015 in all countries currently using only oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Administration of fractional dose (1/5 of full dose) IPV (fIPV) by intradermal (ID) injection may reduce costs,(More)
In this work, we present a computational behavioralmodel for logic gates called Internode (Internal Node LogicComputational Model) that considers the functionality ofthe gate as well as all the different internal states the gatecan reach. This computational model can be used in logic-leveltools and is valid for any dynamic behavioral model(delay models,(More)