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the United States Government nor any agency thereof, or any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for any third party's use, or the results of such use, of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed in this report, or represents that its use by such third party would not(More)
—Real power injections at loads and generators, and real power flows on selected lines in a transmission network are monitored and transmitted over a SCADA network to the system operator. These are used in state estimation algorithms to make dispatch, re-balance and other energy management system [EMS] decisions. Coordinated cyber attacks on power meter(More)
— Power system operators rely critically on state estimation for verification, fault detection and localization, and re-dispatch under contingency operations. In current practice, power system data within a control area such as voltages, phases, real and reactive power flows and injections, are relayed to the operator using SCADA systems. State estimation(More)
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