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Today's mainstream object-oriented compilers and tools do not support declaring and statically checking simple pre-and postcon-ditions on methods and invariants on object representations. The main technical problem preventing static verification is reasoning about the sharing relationships among objects as well as where object invariants should hold. We(More)
An object invariant defines what it means for an object's data to be in a consistent state. Object invariants are central to the design and correctness of object-oriented programs. This paper defines a programming methodology for using object invariants. The methodology, which enriches a program's state space to express when each object invariant holds,(More)
Message-based communication offers the potential benefits of providing stronger specification and cleaner separation between components. Compared with shared-memory interactions, message passing has the potential disadvantages of more expensive data exchange (no direct sharing) and more complicated programming.In this paper we report on the language,(More)
Tracing just-in-time compilers (TJITs) determine frequently executed traces (hot paths and loops) in running programs and focus their optimization effort by emitting optimized machine code specialized to these traces. Prior work has established this strategy to be especially beneficial for dynamic languages such as JavaScript, where the TJIT interfaces with(More)
A type system with linearity is useful for checking software protocols andresource management at compile time. Linearity provides powerful reasoning about state changes, but at the price of restrictions on aliasing. The hard division between linear and nonlinear types forces the programmer to make a trade-off between checking a protocol on an object and(More)
Many program analyses are naturally formulated and implemented using inclusion constraints. We present new results on the scalable implementation of such analyses based on two insights: first, that online elimination of cyclic constraints yields orders-of-magnitude improvements in analysis time for large problems; second, that the choice of constraint(More)
Singularity is a research project in Microsoft Research that started with the question: what would a software platform look like if it was designed from scratch with the primary goal of dependability? Singularity is working to answer this question by building on advances in programming languages and tools to develop a new system architecture and operating(More)
The Spec# programming system [2] is a new attempt to increase the quality of general purpose, industrial software. Using old wisdom, we propose the use of specifications to make programmer assumptions explicit. Using modern technology, we propose the use of tools to enforce the specifications. To increase its chances of having impact, we want to design the(More)
In most modern operating systems, a process is a hardware-protected abstraction for isolating code and data. This protection, however, is selective. Many common mechanisms---dynamic code loading, run-time code generation, shared memory, and intrusive system APIs---make the barrier between processes very permeable. This paper argues that this traditional(More)