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OBJECTIVE To determine the relation between baseline MRI and both conversion to multiple sclerosis (MS) and development of disability in a cohort of patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS). METHODS From 1995 to 1998, 175 consecutive patients with CIS underwent brain MRI within 3 months of their first attack and again 12 months and 5 years later.(More)
Changes in cellular functions in response to drug therapy are mediated by specific transcriptional profiles resulting from the induction or repression in the activity of a number of genes, thereby modifying the preexisting gene activity pattern of the drug-targeted cell(s). Recombinant human interferon beta (rIFNbeta) is routinely used to control(More)
BACKGROUND Recently developed diagnostic criteria for MS (McDonald criteria) indicate that in patients with a single demyelinating episode (clinically isolated syndromes [CIS]), evidence for dissemination in space and time, essential for diagnosis, may be provided by MRI. OBJECTIVE To assess the usefulness of these new criteria in patients with CIS(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially(More)
Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) has been proposed as a biomarker associated with the conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis in patients with clinically isolated syndromes, based on the finding of increased cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 levels in clinically isolated syndrome patients who later converted to multiple sclerosis compared to those who(More)
The effect of interferon-beta in multiple sclerosis is modest and many patients do not respond to treatment. To date, no single biomarker reliably correlates with responsiveness to interferon-beta in multiple sclerosis. In the present study, genome-wide expression profiling was performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 47 multiple sclerosis(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disorder of the central nervous system characterized by autoimmune inflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage. MS etiology remains unknown, but disease phenotype is most likely the result of an interaction between complex genetic factors and environmental influences. The better understanding of the mechanisms(More)
Increased expression of the costimulatory molecule CD80 (B7-1) was noted in the subventricular zone of the brain during the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This area of the brain is a neural stem cell (NSC) niche in the adult. We show that isolated NSCs from adult brain express CD80 and CD86 (B7-2) and this expression is increased(More)
OBJECTIVE The aims of the study were to determine the immune responses to candidate viral triggers of multiple sclerosis (MS) in patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CISs), and to evaluate their potential value in predicting conversion to MS. METHODS Immune responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6, cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and(More)
BACKGROUND To evaluate whether oligoclonal bands (OB) add information to MRI in predicting both a second attack and development of disability in patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS). METHODS From 1995 to 2006, 572 patients with CIS were included in a prospective study. Patients underwent brain MRI and determination of OB within 3 months of(More)