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Changes in cellular functions in response to drug therapy are mediated by specific transcriptional profiles resulting from the induction or repression in the activity of a number of genes, thereby modifying the preexisting gene activity pattern of the drug-targeted cell(s). Recombinant human interferon beta (rIFNbeta) is routinely used to control(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the relation between baseline MRI and both conversion to multiple sclerosis (MS) and development of disability in a cohort of patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS). METHODS From 1995 to 1998, 175 consecutive patients with CIS underwent brain MRI within 3 months of their first attack and again 12 months and 5 years later.(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially(More)
There is a long history of research into body fluid biomarkers in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. However, only a few biomarkers in CSF are being used in clinical practice. One of the most critical factors in CSF biomarker research is the inadequate powering of studies because of the lack of sufficient samples that can be obtained in(More)
BACKGROUND Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism is a possible factor contributing to the maternal parent-of-origin effect in multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility. METHODS AND FINDINGS In order to investigate the role of mtDNA variations in MS, we investigated six European MS case-control cohorts comprising >5,000 individuals. Three well matched(More)
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine with pleiotropic actions that can be present both as a transmembrane protein and soluble cytokine (sTNF). Both ligands interact with two different receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which mediate their biological effects. TNF-α is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), however, administration of(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system. Currently, there are different formulations approved for MS treatment and others are in different stages of investigation or awaiting approval by federal agencies. RECENT FINDINGS All of these medications have demonstrated partial efficacy along(More)
Biomarkers can be thought of as multifaceted indicators of healthy status or of pathological disorders. The study of multiple sclerosis can benefit from the use of biomarkers because of the disease's inherent heterogeneity. Biomarkers in multiple sclerosis might assist with diagnosis, prediction of disease course, or identification of response outcome to(More)
OBJECTIVE The aims of the study were to determine the immune responses to candidate viral triggers of multiple sclerosis (MS) in patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CISs), and to evaluate their potential value in predicting conversion to MS. METHODS Immune responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6, cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and(More)
Innate immunity is the body's first line of defense against foreign pathogens. Although adaptive immune responses have for long time been considered to play important roles in the etiopathogenesis of autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS), evidence exists that adaptive immunity is not acting in isolation but rather in conjunction with(More)