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The continuous infusion of low doses of naloxone has been reported to decrease postoperative opioid requirements and opioid side effects. However, there is no study that evaluates the effectiveness of the combination of a low dose of naloxone and morphine using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). This prospective, randomized double-blind controlled study(More)
A novel bivalent opioid tetrapeptide, biphalin (Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-NH)2, was synthesized based on structure-activity relationships. The analgesic activity of biphalin was assessed in comparison to morphine in rats. Drugs were administered subcutaneously (s.c.), intravenously (i.v.) and intrathecally (i.t.). Tail flick and tail pinch were used as tests for(More)
To determine separately the effect of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on analgesia and on inflammation, rats were assigned to receive CRH 60 microg/kg, CRH 300 microg/kg, morphine 4 mg/kg, or normal saline intravenously 15 min before a burn injury. Two mesh chambers that allowed collection of fluid had been previously implanted subdermally in each(More)
The aim of this study was to use Monte Carlo simulations to compare logistic regression with propensity scores in terms of bias, precision, empirical coverage probability, empirical power, and robustness when the number of events is low relative to the number of confounders. The authors simulated a cohort study and performed 252,480 trials. In the logistic(More)
Despite widespread use of the 0-10 numeric rating scale (NRS) of pain intensity, relatively little is known about the meaning of decreases in pain intensity assessed by means of this scale to patients. We aimed to establish the meaning to patients of declines in pain intensity and percent pain reduction. Upon arrival to the postanesthesia care unit,(More)
UNLABELLED Sex differences in pain perception and in response to opioids have been described, but the findings are inconsistent. We sought to determine the effect of sex on pain perception, morphine consumption, and morphine analgesia after surgery. We designed a prospective cohort study and included 423 women and 277 men who emerged from general anesthesia(More)
Ultralow doses of naloxone (0.001-0.1 microg/kg) produce analgesia in animal models. However, no clinical study has evaluated the combination of ultralow dose naloxone and morphine using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). This randomized, double blind controlled study sought to determine if the combination of ultralow dose naloxone and morphine in PCA(More)
A growing multibillion dollar industry markets magnetic necklaces, bracelets, bands, insoles, back braces, mattresses, etc., for pain relief, although there is little evidence for their efficacy. We sought to evaluate the effect of magnetic therapy on pain intensity and opioid requirements in patients with postoperative pain. We designed a randomized,(More)
The use of percentage pain reduction is increasingly used to evaluate the effectiveness of pain treatments, but the degree of agreement between calculated percentage pain reduction (CPPR) as calculated from pre- and post-treatment levels of pain intensity and those reported directly by patients is unknown. Lack of agreement between these two measures could(More)
  • VENTANAS DE TIEMPO, Y PROGRAMACIÓN, +4 authors Manuel Cepeda
  • 2009
The vehicle routing problem with time windows and scheduled loading [VRPTWSL] requires not only the design of routes with time windows and capacity constraints, but also a schedule of the departures of vehicles from the depot given a load time due to the limited resources available to load the demand in the vehicles. A mathematical formulation of the(More)