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SWISS-MODEL (http://swissmodel.expasy.org) is a server for automated comparative modeling of three-dimensional (3D) protein structures. It pioneered the field of automated modeling starting in 1993 and is the most widely-used free web-based automated modeling facility today. In 2002 the server computed 120 000 user requests for 3D protein models.(More)
The allotetraploid plant Nicotiana tabacum (common tobacco) is a major crop species and a model organism, for which only very fragmented genomic sequences are currently available. Here we report high-quality draft genomes for three main tobacco varieties. These genomes show both the low divergence of tobacco from its ancestors and microsynteny with other(More)
Nicotiana sylvestris and Nicotiana tomentosiformis are members of the Solanaceae family that includes tomato, potato, eggplant and pepper. These two Nicotiana species originate from South America and exhibit different alkaloid and diterpenoid production. N. sylvestris is cultivated largely as an ornamental plant and it has been used as a diploid model(More)
We are investigating the nature of the chemical interactions between the neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its cell surface receptor (Y1). A previous study involving site-directed mutagenesis and computer-aided modelling (Walker et al., 1994) suggested that the C-terminal Tyr36 of NPY, known to be a key residue for receptor binding, might dock at a pocket formed by(More)
Organotypic culture of human primary bronchial epithelial cells is a useful in vitro system to study normal biological processes and lung disease mechanisms, to develop new therapies, and to assess the biological perturbations induced by environmental pollutants. Herein, we investigate whether the perturbations induced by cigarette smoke (CS) and observed(More)
One of the hallmarks of apoptosis is the digestion of genomic DNA by an endonuclease, generating a ladder of small fragments of double-stranded DNA. We have examined the nature of the DNA breaks produced in mouse thymocytes triggered to undergo apoptosis by steroids or by stimulation of the T cell receptor. Whereas the typical ladder pattern of(More)
We have identified three new families of insulin homologs in Caenorhabditis elegans. In two of these families, concerted mutations suggest that an additional disulfide bond links B and A domains, and that the A-domain internal disulfide bond is substituted by a hydrophobic interaction. Homology modeling remarkably confirms these predictions and shows that(More)
This article collects opinions from leading scientists about how text mining can provide better access to the biological literature, how the scientific community can help with this process, what the next steps are, and what role future BioCreative evaluations can play. The responses identify several broad themes, including the possibility of fusing(More)
MOTIVATION Analyses and algorithmic predictions based on high-throughput data are essential for the success of systems biology in academic and industrial settings. Organizations, such as companies and academic consortia, conduct large multi-year scientific studies that entail the collection and analysis of thousands of individual experiments, often over(More)
Systems Toxicology is the integration of classical toxicology with quantitative analysis of large networks of molecular and functional changes occurring across multiple levels of biological organization. Society demands increasingly close scrutiny of the potential health risks associated with exposure to chemicals present in our everyday life, leading to an(More)