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Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's Disease (PD) are common causes of motor and cognitive deficits and are associated with the abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn). This study investigated whether passive immunization with a novel monoclonal α-syn antibody (9E4) against the C-terminus (CT) of α-syn was able to cross into the CNS and(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) mediates the redistribution of lipids among cells and is expressed at highest levels in brain and liver. Human apoE exists in three major isoforms encoded by distinct alleles (epsilon2, epsilon3, and epsilon4). Compared with APOE epsilon2 and epsilon3, APOE epsilon4 increases the risk of cognitive impairments, lowers the age of onset(More)
Apolipoprotein (apo) E isoforms are key determinants of susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease. The apoE4 isoform is the major known genetic risk factor for this disease and is also associated with poor outcome after acute head trauma or stroke. To test the hypothesis that apoE3, but not apoE4, protects against age-related and excitotoxin-induced(More)
Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (RAGE), a multiligand receptor in the immunoglobulin superfamily, functions as a signal-transducing cell surface acceptor for amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta). In view of increased neuronal expression of RAGE in Alzheimer's disease, a murine model was developed to assess the impact of RAGE in an Abeta-rich(More)
Apolipoprotein E fulfills fundamental functions in lipid transport and neural tissue repair after injury.(6,8) Its three most common isoforms (E2, E3, and E4) are critical determinants of diverse human diseases, including major cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.(8,14) Apolipoprotein E4 is associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer's(More)
Immunoresponsive gene 1 (Irg1) is highly expressed in mammalian macrophages during inflammation, but its biological function has not yet been elucidated. Here, we identify Irg1 as the gene coding for an enzyme producing itaconic acid (also known as methylenesuccinic acid) through the decarboxylation of cis-aconitate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate.(More)
Transgenic mice mimicking certain features of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-pathology, namely amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, have been developed in an effort to better understand the mechanism leading to the formation of these characteristic cerebral lesions. More recently, these animal models have been widely used to investigate emergent therapies(More)
Alpha-synuclein protein is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis Parkinson's disease. Increased expression of α-synuclein due to genetic multiplication or point mutations leads to early onset disease. While α-synuclein is known to modulate membrane vesicle dynamics, it is not clear if this activity is involved in the pathogenic process or if measurable(More)
The most frequent human apolipoprotein (apo) E isoforms, E3 and E4, differentially affect Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk (E4 > E3) and age of onset (E4 < E3). Compared with apoE3, apoE4 promotes the cerebral deposition of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides, which are derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and play a central role in AD. However, it is(More)