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Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) are used in multiple consumer products. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), the most widely studied PFCs, may be potential developmental, reproductive, and systemic toxicants. Although PFCs seem to be ubiquitous contaminants found both in humans and animals, geographic differences may exist(More)
Nearly half of the world's population is exposed to household air pollution (HAP) due to long hours spent in close proximity to unvented cooking fires. We aimed to use PM2.5 and CO measurements to characterize exposure to cookstove generated woodsmoke in real time among control (n=10) and intervention (n=9) households in San Marcos, Cajamarca Region, Peru.(More)
Burning biomass fuels such as wood on indoor open-pit stoves is common in developing regions. In such settings, exposure to harmful combustion products such as fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), carbon monoxide (CO) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is of concern. We aimed to investigate if the replacement of open pit stoves by improved stoves(More)
90% of people residing in rural areas of less-developed countries rely on coal and biomass fuels for heating and cooking, leading to high exposures to the products of incomplete combustion. Three Andean communities within the Santiago de Chuco province of Peru received two different models of improved cookstoves. The impact of these stoves in reducing(More)
High-altitude populations using biofuels for household energy may be at health risk due to a combination of altitudinal stress and indoor exposures to biomass smoke. In this article, the authors measure indoor and outdoor breathing level concentrations of PM(2.5) and CO during periods of meal preparation in a convenience sample of homes above 3000 m in(More)
Phthalates are a group of phthalic acid esters which are used as plasticizers and additives. In laboratory animals, several phthalates are known endocrine disruptors. Several studies have described phthalate exposure in the United States and developed countries but little is known about phthalate exposure in the developing world, particularly during(More)
Nearly half of the world's population depends on biomass fuels to meet domestic energy needs, producing high levels of pollutants responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality. We compare carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures and kitchen concentrations in households with study-promoted intervention (OPTIMA-improved stoves and(More)
BACKGROUND Measurement of biological indicators of physiological change may be useful in evaluating the effectiveness of stove models, which are intended to reduce indoor smoke exposure and potential health effects. OBJECTIVES We examined changes in exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), percentage carboxy-hemoglobin, and total hemoglobin in response to the(More)
Nearly half of the world's population is exposed to household air pollution (HAP) due to long hours spent in close proximity to unvented cooking fires. The effect of woodsmoke exposure on oxidative stress was examined by investigating the association between woodsmoke exposure and biomarkers of DNA oxidation (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]) and lipid(More)
In this pilot study, conducted in summer 2002, the authors measured blood lead levels (BLLs) for 118 subjects in the city of Trujillo, Peru, where leaded gasoline is in the process of being phased out. Subjects included bus drivers, combi (minivan) drivers, street vendors, newspaper vendors, traffic police, taxi drivers, gas station attendants, children(More)