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Computational neuroscience combines theory and experiment to shed light on the principles and mechanisms of neural computation. This approach has been highly fruitful in the ongoing effort to understand velocity computation by the primate visual system. This Review describes the success of spatiotemporal-energy models in representing local-velocity(More)
Aerobic glycolysis (AG; i.e., nonoxidative metabolism of glucose despite the presence of abundant oxygen) accounts for 10%-12% of glucose used by the adult human brain. AG varies regionally in the resting state. Brain AG may support synaptic growth and remodeling; however, data supporting this hypothesis are sparse. Here, we report on investigations on the(More)
"In vivo Brodmann mapping" or non-invasive cortical parcellation using MRI, especially by measuring cortical myelination, has recently become a popular research topic, though myeloarchitectonic cortical parcellation in humans previously languished in favor of cytoarchitecture. We review recent in vivo myelin mapping studies and discuss some of the different(More)
When blind people touch Braille characters, blood flow increases in visual areas, leading to speculation that visual circuitry assists tactile discrimination in the blind. We tested this hypothesis in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study designed to reveal activation appropriate to the nature of tactile stimulation. In late-blind individuals,(More)
Postnatal cortical synaptic development is characterized by stages of exuberant growth, pruning, and stabilization during adulthood. How gene expression orchestrates these stages of synaptic development is poorly understood. Here we report that synaptic growth-related gene expression alone does not determine cortical synaptic density changes across the(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW To review recent advances in understanding supraaortic arterial dissections and their diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS Dissection of the supraaortic arteries, including the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries and intracranial arteries, is increasingly identified as an important cause of stroke and subarachnoid(More)
OBJECTIVE To define the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with idiopathic stenosis or occlusion of the basal arteries, without moyamoya collateral vessel formation. METHODS We identified patients who presented to our institution from 1996 to 2005 with occlusive disease of the distal internal carotid artery or the proximal middle or anterior(More)
Type I Chiari malformations are congenital deformities involving cerebellar tonsillar herniation downward through the foramen magnum. Structurally, greater than 5 mm of tonsillar descent in adults and more than 6 mm in children is consistent with type I Chiari malformations. However, the radiographic severity of the tonsillar descent does not always(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of bicuspid aortic valves (BAVs) and thoracic ascending aortic aneurysms (TAAs) in a retrospective cohort of patients treated for intracranial aneurysms (IAs). METHODS Patients treated for IA at our institution between 2002 and 2011 were identified and their clinical records reviewed.(More)
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