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AIMS The objective of the present work was to utilize an unrefined natural substrate namely mahua (Madhuca sp.) flowers, as a carbon source for the production of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymer by Bacillus sp-256. METHODS AND RESULTS In the present work, three bacterial strains were tested for PHA production on mahua flower extract (to(More)
Here we describe an ultra-low-cost origami-based approach for large-scale manufacturing of microscopes, specifically demonstrating brightfield, darkfield, and fluorescence microscopes. Merging principles of optical design with origami enables high-volume fabrication of microscopes from 2D media. Flexure mechanisms created via folding enable a flat compact(More)
Rational control over the morphology and the functional properties of inorganic nanostructures has been a long-standing goal in the development of bottom-up device fabrication processes. We report that the geometry of hydrothermally grown zinc oxide nanowires can be tuned from platelets to needles, covering more than three orders of magnitude in aspect(More)
Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete(More)
Mechanical force organizes life at all scales, from molecules to cells and tissues. Although we have made remarkable progress unraveling the mechanics of life's individual building blocks, our understanding of how they give rise to the mechanics of larger-scale biological structures is still poor. Unlike the engineered macroscopic structures that we(More)
We evaluated two novel, portable microscopes and locally acquired, single-ply, paper towels as filter paper for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium infection. The mobile phone-mounted Foldscope and reversed-lens CellScope had sensitivities of 55.9% and 67.6%, and specificities of 93.3% and 100.0%, respectively, compared with conventional light(More)
OBJECTIVES To explore community reintegration in rehabilitated South Indian persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to compare the level of community reintegration based on demographic variables. DESIGN Survey. SETTING Rehabilitation center of a tertiary care university teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS Community-dwelling persons with SCI (N=104). (More)
We present a simple, intuitive algorithm for visualizing time-varying flow fields that can reveal complex flow structures with minimal user intervention. We apply this technique to a variety of biological systems, including the swimming currents of invertebrates and the collective motion of swarms of insects. We compare our results to more(More)
layer, following the release of the twist. The intriguing transfer of chirality from the macroscale to the nanoscale occurs through the non-uniform compressive stress field that develops as the twist is released. As the nanocomposite undergoes compression during un-twisting, the non-uniform compressive stress field induces buckling of the nanocomposite(More)
The motility of many parasites is critical for the infection process of their host, as exemplified by the transmission cycle of the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni [1]. In their human infectious stage, immature, submillimetre-scale forms of the parasite known as cercariae swim in freshwater and infect human hosts by penetrating through the skin [1, 2]. This(More)