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We present SeaView version 4, a multiplatform program designed to facilitate multiple alignment and phylogenetic tree building from molecular sequence data through the use of a graphical user interface. SeaView version 4 combines all the functions of the widely used programs SeaView (in its previous versions) and Phylo_win, and expands them by adding(More)
SEAVIEW and PHYLO_WIN are two graphic tools for X Windows-Unix computers dedicated to sequence alignment and molecular phylogenetics. SEAVIEW is a sequence alignment editor allowing manual or automatic alignment through an interface with CLUSTALW program. Alignment of large sequences with extensive length differences is made easier by a dot-plot-based(More)
We have developed a World Wide Web (WWW) version of the sequence retrieval system Query: WWW-Query. This server allows to query nucleotide sequence banks in the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ formats and protein sequence banks in the NBRF/PIR format. WWW-Query includes all the features of the on-line sequences browsers already available: possibility to build complex(More)
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites infesting many animal groups. Lacking mitochondria and peroxysomes, these unicellular eukaryotes were first considered a deeply branching protist lineage that diverged before the endosymbiotic event that led to mitochondria. The discovery of a gene for a mitochondrial-type chaperone combined with molecular(More)
Relative-rate tests may be used to compare substitution rates between more than two sequences, which yields two main questions: What influence does the number of sequences have on relative-rate tests and what is the influence of the sampling strategy as characterized by the phylogenetic relationships between sequences? Using both simulations and analysis of(More)
The nucleic acid sequence bank now contains over 600 protein coding genes of which 107 are from prokaryotic organisms. Codon frequencies in each new prokaryotic gene are given. Analysis of genetic code usage in the 83 sequenced genes of the Escherichia coli genome (chromosome, transposons and plasmids) is presented, taking into account new data on gene(More)
It has been claimed that complete genome sequences would clarify phylogenetic relationships between organisms, but up to now, no satisfying approach has been proposed to use efficiently these data. For instance, if the coding of presence or absence of genes in complete genomes gives interesting results, it does not take into account the phylogenetic(More)
Frequencies for each of the 61 amino acid codons have been determined in every published mRNA sequence of 50 or more codons. The frequencies are shown for each kind of genome and for each individual gene. A surprising consistency of choices exists among genes of the same or similar genomes. Thus each genome, or kind of genome, appears to possess a "system"(More)
We analyzed the distribution of 54 families of transposable elements (TEs; transposons, LTR retrotransposons, and non-LTR retrotransposons) in the chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster, using data from the sequenced genome. The density of LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons (RNA-based elements) was high in regions with low recombination rates, but there was(More)
Despite a large agreement between ribosomal RNA and concatenated protein phylogenies, the phylogenetic tree of the bacterial domain remains uncertain in its deepest nodes. For instance, the position of the hyperthermophilic Aquificales is debated, as their commonly observed position close to Thermotogales may proceed from horizontal gene transfers, long(More)