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While a number of studies have documented the importance of microglia in central nervous system (CNS) response to injury, infection and disease, little is known regarding its role in viral encephalitis. We therefore, exploited an experimental model of Japanese Encephalitis, to better understand the role played by microglia in Japanese Encephalitis Virus(More)
Leaf explants of the second or third node were collected from field-grown elite Jatropha curcas trees and incubated in Murashige and Skoog’s (Physiol Plant 15:473–497, 1962) medium supplemented with growth regulators. Direct shoot organogenesis was induced when explants were incubated in a medium containing 0.5 mg l−1 benzyladenine (BA) and 0.1 mg l−1(More)
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is caused by a neurotropic flavivirus that causes CNS damage that leads to death in acute cases or permanent neuropsychiatric sequel in survivors. The course of infection of this virus is not well defined though it is clear that it evades the host's innate immune response in the periphery. The current study was designed to(More)
UNLABELLED OBJECTIVES; To evaluate therapeutic efficacy of arctigenin in an experimental model of Japanese encephalitis (JE). METHODS Four- to 5-week-old BALB/c mice of either sex were infected intravenously with lethal dose of 3 x 10(5) pfu of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). By the 9th day post-infection, all untreated animals succumbed to the(More)
This report describes Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Withania somnifera—an important Indian medicinal plant. A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404, containing the binary vector pIG121Hm was used for transformation, along with the gusA reporter gene with intron under the transcriptional control of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S(More)
IL-1beta and IL-18 are members of the IL-1 family of ligands, and their receptors are members of the IL-1 receptor family. Although several biological properties overlap for these cytokines, differences exist. In order to assess functional importance of these two cytokines in viral encephalitis, we have exploited an experimental model of Japanese(More)
The widely abused psychostimulant cocaine is thought to elicit its reinforcing effects primarily via inhibition of the neuronal dopamine transporter (DAT). However, not all DAT inhibitors share cocaine's behavioral profile, despite similar or greater affinity for the DAT. This may be due to differential molecular interactions with the DAT. Our previous work(More)
Minocycline is broadly protective in neurological disease models featuring inflammation and cell death and is being evaluated in clinical trials. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is one of the most important causes of viral encephalitis worldwide. There is no specific treatment for Japanese encephalitis (JE) and no effective antiviral drugs have been(More)
The incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are rising. According to some estimates >1 million new cases of IBD arise in the United States annually. The conventional therapies available for IBD range from anti-inflammatory drugs to immunosuppressive agents, but these(More)
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that is the causative agent of a major mosquito-borne encephalitis in the world. Evasion of peripheral immune system facilitates the entry of the virus into the central nervous system (CNS) where it causes extensive neuronal inflammatory damage that leads to death or severe neuropschychiatric(More)