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Ultrasound vocalizations (USVs) known as 22kHz are usual components of the defensive responses of rats exposed to threatening conditions. The amount of emission of 22kHz USVs depends on the intensity(More)
We studied the effects of morphine injected into the dorsal periaqueductal gray using conventional and novel ethological measures of the behavior of rats submitted to the elevated plus-maze test.(More)
Housing conditions change the emotional state of the animals. Ultrasound vocalizations (USVs) termed as 22 kHz are the usual components of the defensive responses of rats exposed to threatening(More)