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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the ototoxicity of various agents. This study examines the effects of superoxide anion (O2), hydroxyl radical (OH.) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), on isolated cochlear outer hair cell (OHC) morphology. OHCs were superfused with artificial perilymph (AP) or AP containing a specific ROS scavenger, and then(More)
We have examined the effects of O2-derived free radicals on oxymyoglobin, the myocardial intracellular protein involved in the storage and transport of O2. The oxyradicals generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system decreased the concentration of oxymyoglobin. Based on the decreases in absorbance peaks at 581 nm and 415 nm it is estimated that out of(More)
We investigated the mechanism of membrane phospholipid degradation during reperfusion of ischemic myocardium using isolated and perfused rat hearts. Thirty min of myocardial reperfusion after 30 min of normothermic global ischemia resulted in a significant decrease of phosphatidylcholine (PC) content associated with a small but significant increase in(More)
The increase of cellular fatty acids appears to be one of the causes of the myocardial injury during ischemia and reperfusion. This study was designed to examine whether a hypolipidemic drug such as clofibrate can reduce the myocardial injury during ischemia and reperfusion. Clofibrate was fed to experimental pigs for 9 days. Isolated in situ hearts from(More)
The feasibility of polymorphonuclear leucocytes as a potential source of free radicals during reperfusion of ischaemic myocardium was evaluated. Isolated rat heart was perfused in the presence of f-Met-Leu-Phe-activated and normal polymorphonuclear leucocytes for 30 min. To judge the degree of cellular injury which might result from activated(More)
Reperfusion injury occurs during open-heart surgery after prolonged cardioplegic arrest. Cardiopulmonary bypass also is known to cause hemolysis. Since reperfusion of ischemic myocardium is associated with the generation of oxygen free radicals, and since free radicals can attack a protein molecule, it seems reasonable to assume that hemolysis might be the(More)
Xanthine oxidase (XO) has been hypothesized to be a potential source of oxygen-derived free radicals during reperfusion of ischemic myocardium based on the fact that allopurinol, a XO-inhibitor, can reduce reperfusion injury. In this communication we report that both allopurinol and oxypurinol, the principle metabolite of allopurinol, prevent the(More)
Several studies indicate the presence of hydroxyl radical (OH.) as well as its involvement in the myocardial reperfusion injury. A transition metal-like iron is necessary for the conversion of superoxide anion (O2-) to a highly reactive and cytotoxic hydroxyl radical (OH.). In the present study, we have examined the generation of OH. and free iron in(More)
In this study, we examined phosphoinositide metabolism during ischemia and reperfusion using an isolated and perfused rat heart. When myocardial phosphoinositides were prelabeled with [3H]inositol, reperfusion after 30 minutes of normothermic global ischemia resulted in significant accumulations of radiolabeled inositol phosphate, inositol bisphosphate, and(More)