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We present a lexicon-based approach to extracting sentiment from text. The Semantic Orientation CALculator (SO-CAL) uses dictionaries of words annotated with their semantic orientation (polarity and strength), and incorporates intensification and negation. SO-CAL is applied to the polarity classification task, the process of assigning a positive or negative(More)
A corpus of German newspaper commentaries has been assembled and annotated with different information (and currently, to different degrees): part-of-speech, syntax, rhetorical structure , connectives, co-reference, and information structure. The paper explains the design decisions taken in the annotations, and describes a number of applications using this(More)
In this paper, the authors consider argument mining as the task of building a formal representation for an argumentative piece of text. Their goal is to provide a critical survey of the literature on both the resulting representations (i.e., argument diagramming techniques) and on the various aspects of the automatic analysis process. For representation,(More)
We investigate methods for evaluating agreement among a relatively large group of annotators who have not received extensive training and differ in terms of ability and motivation. We show that it is possible to isolate a reliable subgroup of anno-tators, so that aspects of the difficulty of the underlying task can be studied. Our task is to annotate the(More)
Tools for linguistic annotation employ different data models and accompanying visu-alization metaphors, depending on the particular type of annotation envisaged. When a corpus is to be annotated on multiple layers , and the annotations are to be related to one another, the output formats of the annotation tools need to be unified. We describe an implemented(More)
We introduce a new approach to argumen-tation mining that we applied to a parallel German/English corpus of short texts annotated with argumentation structure. We focus on structure prediction, which we break into a number of subtasks: relation identification, central claim identification, role classification, and function classification. Our new model(More)