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This article outlines the present knowledge of the architecture, molecular composition, and dynamics of focal contacts of adhesive animal cells. These structures, developed at the plasma membrane at sites where cells touch their substratum, are essential for cellular attachment in tissue formation during embryogenesis and wound healing. In tissue culture,(More)
In epithelial cells, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-catenin are involved in linking the peripheral microfilament belt to the transmembrane protein E-cadherin. alpha-Catenin exhibits sequence homologies over three regions to vinculin, another adherens junction protein. While vinculin is found in cell-matrix and cell-cell contacts, alpha-catenin is restricted to(More)
Vinculin, a structural protein of animal cells, is critically involved in the assembly of microfilament/plasma membrane junctions at cell contacts. To understand its role in organizing the distal portions of microfilaments into specific, morphologically distinct structures at these sites in more detail, we characterized its interaction with filamentous(More)
Shigella flexneri, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, enters into epithelial cells by a macropinocytic process. IpaA, a Shigella protein secreted upon cell contact, binds to the focal adhesion protein vinculin and is required for efficient bacterial uptake. IpaA was shown here to bind with high affinity to the N-terminal residues 1-265 of vinculin.(More)
Protein sequencing shows that porcine brain tubulin retains the N-terminal sequences of alpha and beta tubulin after a mild treatment with subtilisin. C-terminal peptides released by subtilisin were purified and characterized by automated Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. We confirm the polyglutamylation of alpha tubulin on glutamic acid residue 445(More)
Yeast mutants of cell cycle gene cdc48-1 arrest as large budded cells with microtubules spreading aberrantly throughout the cytoplasm from a single spindle plaque. The gene was cloned and disruption proved it to be essential. The CDC48 sequence encodes a protein of 92 kD that has an internal duplication of 200 amino acids and includes a nucleotide binding(More)
The arginine residue R108 plays an essential role in the transport mechanism of the light-driven anion pump halorhodopsin (HR) as demonstrated by complete inactivation of chloride transport in mutant HR-R108Q. In the presence of substrate anions, guanidinium ions bind to the mutant protein with affinities in the mM range, thereby restoring transport(More)
VASP (vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein), a protein associated with microfilaments at cellular contact sites, has been identified as a ligand for profilin and zyxin, two proteins also involved in microfilament dynamics and organization at these regions. Here, we report that VASP also directly binds to vinculin, another component of adherens junctions.(More)
  • M Rüdiger
  • 1998
Vinculin and alpha-catenin are two functionally related proteins of adherens junctions, structures in which cells make contacts to neighboring cells or to the extracellular matrix. At these sites, the actin cytoskeleton of animal cells is anchored to the plasma membrane. Junction assembly and disassembly are coordinated in processes as different as mitosis,(More)
Using blot overlay techniques we have investigated the interaction of vinculin with alpha-actinin. We show that an alpha-actinin binding site is located in the 90 kDa vinculin head and confirm a vinculin binding site in the C-terminal rod of alpha-actinin, as recently reported by McGregor et al. [(1994) Biochem. J. 310, 225-233]. The isolated vinculin head(More)