Qinghua Fang7
Guillermo Alvarez de Toledo4
Kassandra Kisler4
Liang-Wei Gong4
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The roles of nonmuscle myosin II and cortical actin filaments in chromaffin granule exocytosis were studied by confocal fluorescence microscopy, amperometry, and cell-attached capacitance measurements. Fluorescence imaging indicated decreased mobility of granules near the plasma membrane following inhibition of myosin II function with blebbistatin. Slower(More)
The number of transmitter molecules released in a quantal event can be regulated, and recent studies suggest that the modulation of quantal size is associated with corresponding changes in vesicle volume (Colliver et al., 2000; Pothos et al., 2002). If so, this could occur either by distension of the vesicle membrane or by incorporation and removal of(More)
Alterations in the cytosolic pool directly affect neurotransmitter synthesis and release and are suggested to be key factors in various neurodegenerative disorders. Although this cytosolic pool is the most metabolically active, it is miniscule compared with the amount of vesicular transmitter and has never been quantified separately. Here, we introduce(More)
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate was proposed to be an important regulator of large dense-core vesicle exocytosis from neuroendocrine tissues. Here, we have examined the kinetics of secretion in chromaffin cells from mice lacking phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase type I gamma, the major neuronal phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase. Absence of(More)
The secretory process requires many different steps and stages. Vesicles must be formed and transported to the target membrane. They must be tethered or docked at the appropriate sites and must be prepared for fusion (priming). As the last step, a fusion pore is formed and the contents are released. Release of neurotransmitter is an extremely rapid event(More)
Fusion of neurosecretory vesicles with the plasma membrane is mediated by SNARE proteins, which transfer a force to the membranes. However, the mechanism by which this force transfer induces fusion pore formation is still unknown. The neuronal vesicular SNARE protein synaptobrevin 2 (syb2) is anchored in the vesicle membrane by a single C-terminal(More)
Opening of individual exocytotic fusion pores in chromaffin cells was imaged electrochemically with high time resolution. Electrochemical detector arrays that consist of four platinum microelectrodes were microfabricated on a glass coverslip. Exocytosis of single vesicles containing catecholamines from a cell positioned on top of the array is detected by(More)
In chromaffin cells, Ca(2+) binding to synaptotagmin-1 and -7 triggers exocytosis by promoting fusion pore opening and fusion pore expansion. Synaptotagmins contain two C2 domains that both bind Ca(2+) and contribute to exocytosis; however, it remains unknown whether the C2 domains act similarly or differentially to promote opening and expansion of fusion(More)
Neurotransmitter release is mediated by the SNARE proteins synaptobrevin II (sybII, also known as VAMP2), syntaxin, and SNAP-25, generating a force transfer to the membranes and inducing fusion pore formation. However, the molecular mechanism by which this force leads to opening of a fusion pore remains elusive. Here we show that the ability of sybII to(More)