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During the past 20 years the EU legislation for the notification of chemicals has focussed on new chemicals and at the same time failed to cover the evaluation of existing chemicals in Europe. Therefore, in a new EU chemicals policy (REACH, Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) the European Commission proposes to evaluate 30,000 chemicals(More)
As a follow-up to a prevalidation study on in vitro tests for replacing the in vivo rabbit test for skin corrosivity, an international validation study was conducted during 1996 and 1997 under the auspices of ECVAM. The main objectives of the study were to: (a) identify tests capable of discriminating corrosives from non-corrosives for selected types of(More)
Based on two successfully completed ECVAM validation studies for in vitro skin corrosion testing of chemicals, the National Co-ordinators of OECD Test Guideline Programme endorsed in 2002 two new test guidelines: TG 430 'Transcutaneous Electrical Resistance assay' and TG 431 'Human Skin Model Test'. To allow all suitable in vitro human reconstructed (dermal(More)
This is the report of the thirty-fourth of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM's main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which(More)
To offer a sensitive and predictive in vitro method to assess germ cell mutagenicity, we established primordial germ (PG) cell-derived permanent female and male embryonic germ (EG) cell lines of the mouse (strain BALB/cJ). The differences in developmental sensitivity of EG cells and differentiated fibroblast cells of the mouse cell line 3T3 to genotoxicants(More)
Germ cell mutagenesis is required by the 7th amendment of the directive 67/548 EEC into the national regulations on existing chemicals. Officially accepted in vivo test systems for stage specific mutagenicity are the dominant lethal (DL) test and the specific locus test (SLT) in mice. An acceptable in vitro alternative designed to address germ cell(More)
3Qualitas, Danworth Lane, Hurstpierpoint, West Sussex BN6 9LN, UK; 4Institute for In Vitro Science, 21 Firstfield Road, Suite 220, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA; 5ECVAM, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission Joint Research Centre, 21020 Ispra (VA), Italy; 6Charles University Faculty of Medicine, Simkova 870, Hradec Králové, Czech(More)
As no scientific approach or regulatory guidelines existed for the experimental validation of in vitro toxicity tests, in 1990 a US/European validation workshop agreed in Amden (Switzerland) on a simple definition of the validation process. Several international validation studies failed, although they were conducted according to these recommendations.(More)