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A cell-free preparation of the cytoplasm from activated eggs of Rana pipiens induces, in demembranated sperm nuclei of Xenopus laevis, formation of a nuclear envelope, chromatin decondensation, initiation of DNA synthesis, and chromosome condensation. Both soluble and particulate cytoplasmic constituents are required to initiate these processes in vitro.(More)
Maturation-promoting factor causes germinal vesicle breakdown when injected into Xenopus oocytes and can induce metaphase in a cell-free system. The cell-free assay was used to monitor maturation-promoting factor during its purification from unfertilized Xenopus eggs. Ammonium sulfate precipitation and six chromatographic procedures resulted in a(More)
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are extremely elaborate structures that mediate the bidirectional movement of macromolecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm. With a mass of about 125 MDa, NPCs are thought to be composed of 50 or more distinct protein subunits, each present in multiple copies. During mitosis in higher cells the nuclear envelope is(More)
To understand how cytokinesis is regulated during mitosis, we tested cyclin-p34cdc2 for myosin-II kinase activity, and investigated the mitotic-specific phosphorylation of myosin-II in lysates of Xenopus eggs. Purified cyclin-p34cdc2 phosphorylated the regulatory light chain of cytoplasmic and smooth muscle myosin-II in vitro on serine-1 or serine-2 and(More)
A cell-free cytoplasmic preparation from activated Rana pipiens eggs could induce in demembranated Xenopus laevis sperm nuclei morphological changes similar to those seen during pronuclear formation in intact eggs. The condensed sperm chromatin underwent an initial rapid, but limited, dispersion. A nuclear envelope formed around the dispersed chromatin and(More)
Incubation of demembranated sperm chromatin in cytoplasmic extracts of unfertilized Xenopus laevis eggs resulted in nuclear envelope assembly, chromosome decondensation, and sperm pronuclear formation. In contrast, egg extracts made with EGTA-containing buffers induced the sperm chromatin to form chromosomes or irregularly shaped clumps of chromatin that(More)
Extracts from Xenopus eggs capable of nuclear envelope assembly in vitro were fractionated by differential and density gradient centrifugation. Nuclear envelope assembly was found to require soluble components in the cytosol and two distinct particulate fractions, which we have called nuclear envelope precursor fractions A and B (NEP-A and NEP-B). Both(More)
Highly purified maturation-promoting factor (MPF) from Xenopus eggs contains both cyclin B1 and cyclin B2 as shown by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation using Xenopus anti-B-type cyclin antibodies. Immunoprecipitates with these antibodies display the histone H1 kinase activity characteristic of MPF, for which exogenously added B1 and B2 cyclins are(More)
In the fission yeast S. pombe, the Mr = 34 kd product of the cdc2+ gene (p34cdc2) is a protein kinase that controls entry into mitosis. In Xenopus oocytes and other cells, maturation-promoting factor (MPF) appears in late G2 phase and is able to cause entry into mitosis. Purified MPF consists of two major proteins of Mr approximately equal to 32 kd and 45(More)
Mammalian growth-associated H1 histone kinase, an enzyme whose activity is sharply elevated at mitosis, is similar to cdc2+ protein kinase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and CDC28 protein kinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with respect to immunoreactivity, molecular size, and specificity for phosphorylation sites in H1 histone. Phosphorylation of specific(More)