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Endothelial cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many diseases and are highly sensitive to low gravity conditions. Using a three-dimensional random positioning machine (clinostat) we investigated effects of simulated weightlessness on the human EA.hy926 cell line (4, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h) and addressed the impact of exposure to VEGF (10 ng/ml).(More)
How microgravity affects the biology of human cells and the formation of 3D cell cultures in real and simulated microgravity (r- and s-µg) is currently a hot topic in biomedicine. In r- and s-µg, various cell types were found to form 3D structures. This review will focus on the current knowledge of tissue engineering in space and on Earth using systems such(More)
The process of neoangiogenesis is induced by several mediators. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in tumor angiogenesis including thyroid carcinomas. The principal aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that inhibition of VEGF activity by PTK787/ZK222584 (PTK/ZK), a specific blocker of both VEGF-receptor tyrosine kinases,(More)
This study focused on the effects of short-term microgravity (22 s) on the gene expression and morphology of endothelial cells (ECs) and evaluated gravisensitive signaling elements. ECs were investigated during four German Space Agency (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) parabolic flight campaigns. Hoechst 33342 and acridine orange/ethidium bromide(More)
BACKGROUND Endothelial cells (EC) cultured under altered gravity conditions show a cytoskeletal disorganization and differential gene expression (short-term effects), as well as apoptosis in adherently growing EC or formation of tubular 3D structures (long-term effects). METHODS Investigating short-term effects of real microgravity, we exposed EC to(More)
It has always been a desire of mankind to conquest Space. A major step in realizing this dream was the completion of the International Space Station (ISS). Living there for several months confirmed early observations of short-term spaceflights that a loss of gravity affects the health of astronauts. Space medicine tries to understand the mechanism of(More)
Many space missions have shown that prolonged space flights may increase the risk of cardiovascular problems. Using a three-dimensional clinostat, we investigated human endothelial EA.hy926 cells up to 10 days under conditions of simulated microgravity (microg) to distinguish transient from long-term effects of microg and 1g. Maximum expression of all(More)
When incubated under simulated microgravity (s-microg), endothelial cells (EC) form tubular structures that resemble vascular intimas. This delayed formation of 3D EC structures begins between the 5th and 7th day of culturing EC under conditions of s-microg, when double-row cell assemblies become visible. With the aim of learning about this initial phase of(More)
Fibroblast growth factors interact with appropriate endothelial cell (EC) surface receptors and initiate intracellular signal cascades, which participate in modulating blood vessel growth. EC, upon exposure to basic fibroblast growth factors (bFGFs) undergo profound functional alterations, which depend on their actual sensitivity and involve gene expression(More)
Angiogenesis is a key component of the repair mechanisms triggered by tissue injury. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important mediator of angiogenesis, as it acts directly and specifically on endothelial cells. VEGF produced locally in regenerating tissue may spill over into the systemic circulation, and measuring levels of circulating VEGF(More)