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Remarkably little is known about the higher-order folding motifs of the chromatin fiber inside the cell nucleus. Folding depends among others on local gene density and transcriptional activity and plays an important role in gene regulation. Strikingly, at fiber lengths above 5 to 10 Mb the measured mean square distance <R2> between any two points on the(More)
Chromatin folding inside the interphase nucleus of eukaryotic cells is done on multiple scales of length and time. Despite recent progress in understanding the folding motifs of chromatin, the higher-order structure still remains elusive. Various experimental studies reveal a tight connection between genome folding and function. Chromosomes fold into a(More)
On continental margins, oxidation of methane-rich fluids from the sediment often leads to formation of authigenic carbonate pavements on the seafloor. The biogeochemical processes involved during this carbonate precipitation are increasingly understood, but little is known about the duration or mode of carbonate crust formation. Here, we report uranium and(More)
Root architecture is strongly linked to plant survival under abiotic and biotic stress conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the inheritance of the primary root system complexity in maize (Zea mays L.). For a total of 231 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from the IBM (B73×Mo17) population multiple primary root systems were(More)
One striking feature of chromatin organization is that chromosomes are compartmentalized into distinct territories during interphase, the degree of intermingling being much smaller than expected for linear chains. A growing body of evidence indicates that the formation of loops plays a dominant role in transcriptional regulation as well as the entropic(More)
Chromatin looping is a major epigenetic regulatory mechanism in higher eukaryotes. Besides its role in transcriptional regulation, chromatin loops have been proposed to play a pivotal role in the segregation of entire chromosomes. The detailed topological and entropic forces between loops still remain elusive. Here, we quantitatively determine the potential(More)
The magmatic activity on Vesta was certainly dominated by a large-scale melting event, which generated a global magma-ocean. According to this view, eucrites can be explained in terms of fractional crystallization, with subsequent contamination of the melts by liquids derived by partial fusion of the asteroid's crust [e.g, 1-3]. The HED cumulates (cumulate(More)
Nr. of text pages:19; nr. of figure pages: 2; nr. of table pages: / Nr. of words in abstract: 225; Total nr. of characters: 46816 Conflict of interest statement: No conflicts declared. Summary Three-dimensional (3D) chromatin structure is closely related to genome function, in particular transcription. However, the folding path of the chromatin fiber in the(More)