Manette Marais

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Nineteen young male normolipidemic volunteers sequentially consumed three test meals consisting of cream only, sucrose only, or cream with sucrose. These oral fat-tolerance tests showed an amplification of the postprandial excursion of serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations when sucrose was included in a lipid-rich meal compared with both the(More)
While fever is known to occur in invertebrates and vertebrates, the mechanisms of fever in animals other than mammals have received scant attention. We look initially at the recognition, by the avian immune system, of pathogen associated molecular patterns and the likely role of toll-like receptors in signaling the presence of bacteria and viruses. Several(More)
Endotoxin tolerance represents a state of abated immunological responsiveness to pyrogens, which, in mammals, leads to the decline or abolition of the fever response. The development of endotoxin tolerance in birds is not well understood; consequently, the impact of repeated pathogenic exposure on the avian febrile response, and thus on the ability of birds(More)
Poultry, like mammals and other birds, develop fever when exposed to compounds from gram-negative bacteria. Mammals also develop fever when exposed to the constituents of viruses or gram-positive bacteria, and the fevers stimulated by these different pathogenic classes have discrete characteristics. It is not known whether birds develop fever when infected(More)
The febrile mechanism in all vertebrates involves endogenous molecules which mediate and attenuate the fever response. This mechanism is considered phylogenetically conserved, and the molecules are thought to be analogous in different species. The above notion is supported by evidence which show avian and mammalian fevers to have similar mediators. There(More)
In this two-phase crossover study, 39 hypercholesterolemic subjects followed a prudent diet with either lean red meat or fish and skinless chicken (treatment groups), and 13 subjects (reference group) followed their habitual diet. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for plasma total cholesterol, triacylglycerol (TAG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol(More)
The frequency and inheritance of three restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene were investigated in 27 South African families with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Four haplotypes, defined by the enzymes PvuII, StuI, and NcoI, were found to segregate in this population. The frequency of the rare(More)
The effect of 6 wk of either red meat (RM) or fatty fish (FF) intake on plasma lipid concentrations in 28 free-living volunteers (12 males, 16 females) aged 22-45 y was investigated in this clinical crossover trial. Dietary intake was estimated by 7-d dietary records, and fasting blood samples were analyzed for plasma lipid concentrations. Although energy(More)
African Green (vervet) monkeys were fed either an atherogenic Western diet (WD), a prudent diet (PD), or a high carbohydrate diet (HCD) for various lengths of time. Monkeys differed greatly in their response to the WD, and a strong negative correlation was observed between the fractional catabolic rates (FCR) of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and the total(More)
There is no persuasive evidence of a correlation between proinflammatory cytokines and avian fever. In this study, for the first time, we use avian cytokines to investigate a role for proinflammatory cytokines in the central component of avian fever. IL-1β and IL-6 injected intracerebroventricularly into Pekin ducks (n = 8) initiated robust fevers of equal(More)