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Increased concentrations of the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN) have been implicated in the neurologic deficits and brain atrophy that may accompany infection with the human immunodeficiency virus type-1. Key neuropathologic features of the AIDS encephalitis are replicated in some macaques following infection with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV).(More)
Owl monkeys were inoculated intracerebrally, subcutaneously, and intravenously with JC, BK, or SV40 virus. Two of four adult owl monkeys inoculated with JC virus, a human polyomavirus, developed brain tumors at 16 and 25 months after inoculation, respectively. A grade 3 to grade 4 astrocytoma (resembling a human glioblastoma multiforme) was found in the(More)
The human polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) infects myelin-producing cells in the central nervous system, resulting in the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCV-induced PML occurs most frequently in immunosuppressed individuals, with the highest incidence in human immunodeficiency type 1-infected patients, ranging(More)
Two homosexual men were initially seen with polymyositis as the only manifestation of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) retrovirus infection. They developed AIDS-related complex a few weeks later and typical AIDS two to six months after onset of muscle weakness. By use of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III antiserum and monoclonal(More)
African green monkeys are asymptomatic carriers of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV), commonly called SIVagm. As many as 50% of African green monkeys in the wild may be SIV seropositive. This high seroprevalence rate and the potential for genetic variation of lentiviruses suggested to us that African green monkeys may harbor widely differing genotypes(More)
The extracellular aggregation of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides and the intracellular hyperphosphorylation of tau at specific epitopes are pathological hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cdk5 phosphorylates tau at AD-specific phospho-epitopes when it associates with p25. p25 is a truncated activator, which is produced(More)
For studies of motor neuron function or for therapeutic purposes, novel pseudotype HIV-1-based vectors were developed that are capable of expressing transgenes in motor neurons following injection into mouse hind limb muscles. To specifically target motor neurons, glycoproteins from two rabies virus (RV) isolates, the mouse-brain adapted challenge virus 24(More)
Quinolinate (QUIN), a metabolite in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation and a neurotoxin that is thought to act through the NMDA receptor system, was localized in cultured peripheral blood monocytes/macrophages from SIV-infected monkeys using a recently developed immunohistochemical method. Significant increases in QUIN immunoreactive (IR)(More)
A comparison of antibody titers to JC virus (JCV) or BK virus (BKV) was made by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with 114 human plasma samples. Antibody titers to JCV or BKV determined by HI were lower than those determined by EIA. Nevertheless, as HI titers increased so did EIA titers. When antibody data were compared by the(More)