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Owl monkeys were inoculated intracerebrally, subcutaneously, and intravenously with JC, BK, or SV40 virus. Two of four adult owl monkeys inoculated with JC virus, a human polyomavirus, developed brain tumors at 16 and 25 months after inoculation, respectively. A grade 3 to grade 4 astrocytoma (resembling a human glioblastoma multiforme) was found in the(More)
Increased concentrations of the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN) have been implicated in the neurologic deficits and brain atrophy that may accompany infection with the human immunodeficiency virus type-1. Key neuropathologic features of the AIDS encephalitis are replicated in some macaques following infection with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV).(More)
The extracellular aggregation of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides and the intracellular hyperphosphorylation of tau at specific epitopes are pathological hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cdk5 phosphorylates tau at AD-specific phospho-epitopes when it associates with p25. p25 is a truncated activator, which is produced(More)
For studies of motor neuron function or for therapeutic purposes, novel pseudotype HIV-1-based vectors were developed that are capable of expressing transgenes in motor neurons following injection into mouse hind limb muscles. To specifically target motor neurons, glycoproteins from two rabies virus (RV) isolates, the mouse-brain adapted challenge virus 24(More)
The detection and semiquantitation of JC virus (JCV) DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is prognostic of survival and is a marker of the course of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). CSF samples from 15 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with biopsy-proven PML were analyzed by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A(More)
Quinolinate (QUIN), a metabolite in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation and a neurotoxin that is thought to act through the NMDA receptor system, was localized in cultured peripheral blood monocytes/macrophages from SIV-infected monkeys using a recently developed immunohistochemical method. Significant increases in QUIN immunoreactive (IR)(More)
Animal models of AIDS are essential for understanding the pathogenesis of retrovirus-induced immune deficiency and encephalopathy and for development and testing of new therapies and vaccines. AIDS and related disorders are etiologically linked to members of the lentivirus subfamily of retroviruses; these lymphocytopathic lentiviruses are designated human(More)
A type D retrovirus related to but distinct from Mason-Pfizer monkey virus was isolated in vitro from the blood of two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SAIDS). Three juvenile rhesus monkeys that were injected intravenously with tissue culture fluids containing this virus developed SAIDS after 2 to 4 weeks.
A disease that is similar to human AIDS may occur in monkeys. Simian AIDS (SAIDS) was experimentally transmitted from 2 rhesus monkeys dying of the disease to 4 cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody-negative rhesus monkeys. The inocula consisted of the supernatant fluid from 10% homogenates of various tissues with or without buffy-coat cells from blood.(More)