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Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), the most frequent leukaemia in adults in Western countries, is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical presentation and evolution. Two major molecular subtypes can be distinguished, characterized respectively by a high or low number of somatic hypermutations in the variable region of immunoglobulin genes. The(More)
Neutrophils use immunoglobulins to clear antigen, but their role in immunoglobulin production is unknown. Here we identified neutrophils around the marginal zone (MZ) of the spleen, a B cell area specialized in T cell-independent immunoglobulin responses to circulating antigen. Neutrophils colonized peri-MZ areas after postnatal mucosal colonization by(More)
Chemokines are a superfamily of small structurally related cytokines that have evolved to form a complex network of proteins that typically regulate leucocyte traffic but also carry very diverse sets of immune and non-immune functions. Two general features of cytokines, redundancy and promiscuity, are particularly prominent in chemokines. In part, these(More)
Premenopausal women have a lower cardiovascular risk and a higher incidence of several autoimmune diseases involving blood vessels than men. Although the precise effects of estrogens on the cardiovascular system are largely unknown, recent data suggest that estrogens can exert direct regulatory effects on endothelial cells. In the present study, we show(More)
BACKGROUND Severe invasive pneumococcal disease (SIPD) has high morbidity and mortality, conditioned by pneumococcus and host factors, such as Toll-like receptors and their Toll-IL1R common signaling pathway. The objectives of this study are (1) to correlate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in some Toll-IL1R signaling pathway proteins (IRAK1,(More)
Autoimmune thyroid disease--Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves' disease--patients produce high levels of thyroid autoantibodies and contain lymphoid tissue that resembles secondary lymphoid follicles (LFs). We compared the specificity, structure, and function of tonsil and lymph node LFs with those of the intrathyroidal LFs to assess the latter's capability(More)
MyD88 is a key downstream adapter for most Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1Rs). MyD88 deficiency in mice leads to susceptibility to a broad range of pathogens in experimental settings of infection. We describe a distinct situation in a natural setting of human infection. Nine children with autosomal recessive MyD88 deficiency(More)
Exogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) given by inhalation almost completely abrogates aspirin-induced asthma and the accompanying increase in cysteinyl-leukotrienes production. Cyclooxygenase (COX) may be present in cells in both constitutive (COX-1) and inducible (COX-2) forms. To increase the production of the potentially protective endogenous PGE2, COX-2(More)
The role of the thymus in the induction of tolerance to peripheral antigens is not yet well defined. One impending question involves how the thymus can acquire the diversity of peripheral nonthymic self-Ags for the process of negative selection. To investigate whether peripheral Ags are synthesized in the thymus itself, we have determined the expression of(More)
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) regulate stromal cells, epithelial cells and cells of the immune system, but their effect on B cells remains unclear. Here we identified RORγt(+) ILCs near the marginal zone (MZ), a splenic compartment that contains innate-like B cells highly responsive to circulating T cell-independent (TI) antigens. Splenic ILCs established(More)