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Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), the most frequent leukaemia in adults in Western countries, is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical presentation and evolution. Two major molecular subtypes can be distinguished, characterized respectively by a high or low number of somatic hypermutations in the variable region of immunoglobulin genes. The(More)
Neutrophils use immunoglobulins to clear antigen, but their role in immunoglobulin production is unknown. Here we identified neutrophils around the marginal zone (MZ) of the spleen, a B cell area specialized in T cell-independent immunoglobulin responses to circulating antigen. Neutrophils colonized peri-MZ areas after postnatal mucosal colonization by(More)
MyD88 is a key downstream adapter for most Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1Rs). MyD88 deficiency in mice leads to susceptibility to a broad range of pathogens in experimental settings of infection. We describe a distinct situation in a natural setting of human infection. Nine children with autosomal recessive MyD88 deficiency(More)
Autoimmune thyroid disease--Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves' disease--patients produce high levels of thyroid autoantibodies and contain lymphoid tissue that resembles secondary lymphoid follicles (LFs). We compared the specificity, structure, and function of tonsil and lymph node LFs with those of the intrathyroidal LFs to assess the latter's capability(More)
T-lymphocyte migration into tissues requires focal degradation of the basement membrane. In this study, we show that transient adherence to fibronectin induces the production of activated forms of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, as well as downregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) by T-cell lines. MMP-2 activation was(More)
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive tumor, but a subset of patients may follow an indolent clinical course. To understand the mechanisms underlying this biological heterogeneity, we performed whole-genome and/or whole-exome sequencing on 29 MCL cases and their respective matched normal DNA, as well as 6 MCL cell lines. Recurrently mutated genes were(More)
Exogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) given by inhalation almost completely abrogates aspirin-induced asthma and the accompanying increase in cysteinyl-leukotrienes production. Cyclooxygenase (COX) may be present in cells in both constitutive (COX-1) and inducible (COX-2) forms. To increase the production of the potentially protective endogenous PGE2, COX-2(More)
Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder, which is an important cause of blindness in childhood. The first known gene, CYP1B1, accounts for a variable proportion of cases in most populations. A second gene, LTBP2, was recently reported in association with a syndrome, in which glaucoma is secondary to lens(More)
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) regulate stromal cells, epithelial cells and cells of the immune system, but their effect on B cells remains unclear. Here we identified RORγt(+) ILCs near the marginal zone (MZ), a splenic compartment that contains innate-like B cells highly responsive to circulating T cell-independent (TI) antigens. Splenic ILCs established(More)
In this second review on chemokines, we focus on the polymorphisms and alternative splicings and on their consequences in disease. Because chemokines are key mediators in the pathogenesis of inflammatory, autoimmune, vascular and neoplastic disorders, a large number of studies attempting to relate particular polymorphisms of chemokines to given diseases(More)