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Estimates of the excess health care costs from the exposure of children to tobacco smoke are not available in the United States. We use two nationally representative databases and current econometric techniques to estimate annual health care costs attributable to secondhand exposure by adults in the household. The point estimate closest to significance (p =(More)
BACKGROUND More information is needed on the use and costs of public services by teens after the passage of major national polices in the 1990s. Both the 1996 welfare reform and later changes to the Medicaid program have affected the access of low-income adolescents to public assistance programs. In turn, these changes have affected teenaged mothers and(More)
OBJECTIVES Characterizing the cost of preterm birth is important in assessing the impact of increasing prematurity rates and evaluating the cost-effectiveness of therapies to prevent preterm delivery. To assess early intervention costs that are associated with preterm births, we estimated the program cost of early intervention services for children who were(More)
BACKGROUND Teens and racial and ethnic minority women are less likely to initiate prenatal care (PNC) in the first trimester of pregnancy than their counterparts. OBJECTIVE This study examines the impact of Medicaid program changes in the late 1990s on the timing of Medicaid enrollment and PNC initiation among pregnant teens by race and ethnicity. (More)
OBJECTIVE Although the rate of smoking among women giving birth in the United States has declined steadily from 19.5% in 1989 to 11.4% in 2002, it still far exceeds the Healthy People 2010 goal of 1%. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of a recommended five-step smoking cessation counseling intervention for pregnant women. METHODS Costs(More)
BACKGROUND The 1997 State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) program allowed states to expand Medicaid to uninsured children through age 18 in families under 200% of the federal poverty level. Prepregnancy insurance coverage of adolescents may help reduce unintended pregnancies, address other medical issues, and allow for early and adequate(More)
Manipulation becomes harder when manipulators are uncertain about the preferences of sincere voters. Elicitation may communicate information, of sincere voters' votes, to a manipulator, allowing him to vote strategically. In this paper, a multi-round elicitation process, of sincere voters' preferences, is derived that yields to an optimal manipulation with(More)
<lb>THIS paper proposes that preference and choice are aligned with the pattern of factor<lb>intensity in household production process. It has proved that households will choose<lb>commodities whose production into consumable sets in the households’ production process<lb>uses its abundant resource more intensively. Normalized relative prices of resources,(More)
Teen pregnancy is an important public health issue for all teens, but particularly for low-income teens who rely on the public health safety net for services. Medicaid pays for more than two-thirds of deliveries among teenagers in the USA. To discern how this public program serves pregnant teens (aged 11-19 years), the authors used Medicaid enrollment and(More)
women smoke during pregnancy despite known adverse health ef fects. Medicaid Programs pay for an estimated 27-53 percent of all births, yet little is known about smoking prevalence nor resulting expenses in this population. Findings indicate that pregnant women with deliveries paid by Medicaid are more than twice as likely to smoke as privately insured(More)