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BACKGROUND In advanced Parkinson disease (PD), immediate-release pramipexole, taken 3 times daily, improves symptoms and quality of life. A once-daily extended-release formulation may be an effective and simple alternative therapy. METHODS For a multicenter randomized, double-blind, parallel trial of extended- and immediate-release pramipexole vs placebo,(More)
Certain cytokines have been identified in the peripheral blood as trait markers of schizophrenia, while others are considered relapse-related state markers. Furthermore, data from peripheral blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and nuclear imaging studies suggest that (1) blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction (e.g., immigration of lymphocytes into brain tissue(More)
Disturbances of glutamatergic neurotransmission and mononuclear phagocyte system activation have been described uni- and bipolar depression (UD/BD). Linking the glutamate and immune hypotheses of depression, quinolinic acid (QUIN) is synthesized by activated microglia and acts as an endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDA-R) agonist with(More)
The N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDA-R) plays a central role in learning and memory and has therefore a potential role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Recently, we detected NMDA-R autoantibodies in aged healthy volunteers without neuropsychiatric disorders. Since studies showing the involvement of NMDA-R antibodies in mild(More)
Protein expression of VGF (nonacronymic) is induced by nerve/brain-derived growth factor, neurotrophin 3, and insulin. VGF is synthesized by neurons in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei of the hypothalamus. After enzymatic processing, smaller VGF-derived peptides are secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood. These peptides(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE   In chronic diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD), complex pharmacotherapy dosing schedules are reported to reduce adherence, perhaps leading to less-effective symptom control and, in PD, more erratic stimulation of dopamine receptors. However, blinded clinical-trial designs preclude direct comparisons of adherence to various(More)
Single doses of methamphetamine (25 mg/kg) were administered to adult gerbils. All detectable spines were counted along defined segments of basal, apical and lateral dendrites of Golgi-impregnated pyramidal cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (layers III and V) and the parietal cortex (layer V). These two areas were selected because previous(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDA-R) play a key role in learning and memory. Therefore, they may be involved in the pathophysiology of dementia. NMDA-R autoantibodies directed against the NR1a subunit of the NMDA-R, which were first identified as a specific marker for a severe form of encephalitis, cause a decrease in NMDA-Rs, resulting in(More)
T cells orchestrate the adaptive immune response, making them targets for immunotherapy. Although immunosuppressive therapies prevent disease progression, they also leave patients susceptible to opportunistic infections. To identify novel drug targets, we established a logical model describing T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. However, to have a model that(More)
VGF is a protein expressed by neurons and processed into several peptides. It plays a role in energy homeostasis and promotes growth and survival. Recently, VGF mRNA was detected in peripheral leukocytes. Since it is known that aging is associated with a decrease in the development and function of neuronal as well as immune cells, we addressed the question(More)