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In this study, the diversity of Plasmodium vivax populations circulating in Pakistan and Iran has been investigated by using circumsporozoite protein (csp) and merozoite surface proteins 1 and 3alpha (msp-1 and msp-3alpha) genes as genetic markers. Infected P. vivax blood samples were collected from Pakistan (n=187) and Iran (n=150) during April to October(More)
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the mainstay of global efforts for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but decline in its efficacy is the most important obstacle towards malaria control and elimination. Therefore, the present molecular analysis provides information on putative mutations associated with artemisinin resistance in P.(More)
BACKGROUND In Iran, co-infections of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are common and P. vivax infections are often exposed to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). In the present study, the frequency distribution of mutations associated to SP resistance was investigated in pvdhfr and pvdhps genes from field isolates. METHODS Clinical isolates of P.(More)
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES Species identification and information on transmission pattern of malaria parasite in any malaria endemic area is key to success for a malaria control programme. In this investigation, malaria diagnosis using molecular method was used to assess the transmission pattern of malaria parasite in three malaria endemic regions:(More)
BACKGROUND Analysis of dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) mutations in Plasmodium vivax wild isolates has been considered to be a valuable molecular approach for mapping resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). The present study investigates the frequency of SNPs-haplotypes in the dhfr and dhps genes in P. vivax(More)
This study was designed to analyze the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) mutations as markers of chloroquine (CQ) resistance in 200 blood samples collected from malaria patients in south-eastern Iran during 2002-2005. Among these, 25 (post-treatment) fulfilled the 28-day(More)
BACKGROUND This work was carried out to assess the patterns and prevalence of resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in Iran. METHODS The prevalence of pfcrt K76T, pfmdr1 N86Y, pfdhfr N51I, C59R, S108N/T and I164L and codons S436F/A, A437G, K540E, A581E, and A613S/T in pfdhps genes were genotyped by PCR/RFLP methods in 206(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of dhfr and dhps resistance-associated haplotypes in Plasmodium falciparum isolates, three years after the introduction of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as the first-line antimalarial treatment in Iran. METHODS Blood samples (N=182) were collected from patients presenting with(More)
The main objective of this investigation was whether the combination therapy of sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) plus artesunate (AS) protects against the spread of resistance to SP in malaria-endemic south-eastern Iran. Infected blood samples of Plasmodium falciparum (n=170) were collected during 2008-2010 after the adoption of SP-AS as the first line(More)
In this study, the nature and extent of genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax populations circulating in Afghanistan have been investigated by analyzing three genetic markers: csp, msp-1, and msp-3 alpha. Blood samples (n=202) were collected from patients presenting with vivax malaria from south-western (Herat) and south-eastern (Nangarhar) parts of(More)