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In lower eukaryotes-like fish, innate immunity contributed by various pattern recognition receptor (PRR) plays an essential role in protection against diseases. Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-2 is a cytoplasmic PRR that recognizes MDP (muramyl dipeptide) of the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as ligand and activates signalling(More)
Ornithine decarboxylase, the rate limiting enzyme of the polyamine biosynthesis pathway, is significant in the synthesis of trypanothione, T(SH)2, the major reduced thiol which is responsible for the modulation of the immune response and pathogenesis in visceral leishmaniasis. Data on the relationship between ornithine decarboxylase and the cellular immune(More)
Kinase-insert domain-containing receptor (KDR) is one of the important mediators of Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) function in endothelial cells. Inhibition of KDR can be therapeutically advantageous for treatment of a number of diseases. The present study focuses on exploring novel KDR inhibitors by means of pharmaco-informatics methodologies.(More)
In response to double stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses, toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in fish activates signaling like human, and induces innate immunity. This suggested the existence of dsRNA binding domains in fish TLR3 as reported in higher vertebrates. In in silico analysis, leucine rich repeat (LRR) regions (4-6, 13-14, 20-22), and LRR (8-15, 17-24) were(More)
Scrutinizing various nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) genes in higher eukaryotes is very important for understanding the intriguing mechanism of the host defense against pathogens. The nucleotide-binding domain (NACHT), leucine-rich repeat (LRR), and pyrin domains (PYD)-containing protein 3 (Nalp3), is an intracellular(More)
The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) receptor recognizes various pattern-associated structures of microbes through its leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain and activates signaling cascades to induce innate immunity. This report describes the activation of NOD1 receptor signaling by gamma-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (or γ-D-Glu-mDAP(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play key roles in sensing wide array of microbial signatures and induction of innate immunity. TLR2 in fish resembles higher eukaryotes by sensing peptidoglycan (PGN) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of bacterial cell wall and zymosan of yeasts. However, in fish TLR2, no study yet describes the ligand binding motifs in the leucine rich(More)
Enzyme adenosine kinase is responsible for phosphorylation of adenosine to AMP and is crucial for parasites which are purine auxotrophs. The present study describes development of robust homology model of Leishmania donovani adenosine kinase to forecast interaction phenomenon with inhibitory molecules using structure-based drug designing strategy. Docking(More)
Iron-Sulfur (Fe-S) proteins are involved in many biological functions such as electron transport, photosynthesis, regulation of gene expression and enzymatic activities. Biosynthesis and transfer of Fe-S clusters depend on Fe-S clusters assembly processes such as ISC, SUF, NIF, and CIA systems. Unlike other eukaryotes which possess ISC and CIA systems,(More)
Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT; EC is a central enzyme in the purine recycling pathway. Parasitic protozoa (Leishmania donovani) cannot synthesize purines de novo and utilize the salvage pathway to produce purine bases. Thus, this enzyme is targeted in drug discovery and development. The model of the monomeric L. donovani(More)