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UNLABELLED Effects of morphine on acquisition and retrieval of memory have been proven in the avoidance paradigms. In present study, we used a two-trial recognition Y-maze to test the effects of acute morphine and morphine withdrawal on spatial recognition memory. The Y-maze is based on the innate tendency of rodents to explore novel environments and(More)
Male and female heroin-dependent patients (HDPs) matched with "normal" people were tested on 4 topographical orientation tasks: schematic map-following, map-memory, schematic picture-following, and picture-memory tasks. The results showed that, in general, female HDPs demonstrated greater performance deficits in map-following and map-picture-memory tasks(More)
Monkeys have strong abilities to remember the visual properties of potential food sources for survival in the nature. The present study demonstrated the first observations of rhesus monkeys learning to solve complex spatial mazes in which routes were guided by visual cues. Three monkeys were trained in a maze (6 m x 6 m) included of four different mazes. We(More)
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