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Somatic hypermutation introduces point mutations into immunoglobulin genes in germinal centre B cells during an immune response. The reaction is initiated by cytosine deamination by the activation-induced deaminase (AID) and completed by error-prone processing of the resulting uracils by mismatch and base excision repair factors. Somatic hypermutation(More)
Somatic hypermutation (SHM) of Ig genes in B cells is crucial for antibody affinity maturation. The reaction is initiated by cytosine deamination of Ig loci by activation induced deaminase (AID) and is completed by error-prone DNA repair enzyme processing of AID-generated uracils. The mechanisms that target SHM specifically to Ig loci are poorly understood.(More)
As a chronic inflammatory disease of the liver, the pathogenic mechanisms of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) have not yet been elucidated, with prognosis and diagnosis remaining unsatisfied. Currently the only viable treatments of AIH are immunosuppressant application and liver transplantation. It is considered that lack of good animal AIH models is the main(More)
Alternative polyadenylation (APA) has been shown to play an important role in gene expression regulation in animals and plants. However, the extent of sense and antisense APA at the genome level is not known. We developed a deep-sequencing protocol that queries the junctions of 3'UTR and poly(A) tails and confidently maps the poly(A) tags to the annotated(More)
Class switch recombination (CSR) is the process by which B cells alter the effector function properties of their Ig molecules. The decision to switch to a particular Ig isotype is determined primarily by the mode of B cell activation and cytokine exposure. More recent work indicates that the likelihood or probability of switching increases with successive(More)
Spontaneous synchronized bursts seem to play a key role in brain functions such as learning and memory. Still controversial is the characterization of spontaneous synchronized bursts in neuronal networks after learning training, whether depression or promotion. By taking advantages of the main features of the microelectrode array (MEA) technology (i.e.(More)
This study aims at investigating the effects of MSW incinerator fly ash (FA) and bottom ash (BA) on the anaerobic co-digestion of OFMSW with FA or BA. It also simulates the biogas production from various dosed and control bioreactors. Results showed that suitable ashes addition (FA/MSW 10 and 20 g L(-1) and BA/MSW 100 g L(-1)) could improve the MSW(More)
RATIONALE Pyridine nucleotides regulate the cardiac Na(+) current (I(Na)) through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). OBJECTIVE We investigated the source of ROS induced by elevated NADH. METHODS AND RESULTS In human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells stably expressing the cardiac Na(+) channel, the decrease of I(Na) (52±9%; P<0.01) induced by(More)
The objective of the present study was to develop a practical strategy for the identification of metabolites following the in vivo metabolism and in vitro microbial biotransformation of isoimperatorin using liquid chromatography hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/QTRAP-MS) and liquid chromatography time of flight mass(More)
This study aimed to investigate the effects of eight metals on the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in bioreactors. Anaerobic bioreactors containing 200 mL MSW mixed completely with 200 m L sludge seeding. Ca and K (0, 1000, 2000 and 6,000 mg L(-1)) and Cr, Ni, Zn, Co, Mo and W (0, 5, 50 and 100 mg  L(-1)) of(More)