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The mechanisms involved in sensing oxidative signalling molecules, such as H2O2, in plant and animal cells are not completely understood. In the present study, we tested the postulate that oxidation of Met (methionine) to MetSO (Met sulfoxide) can couple oxidative signals to changes in protein phosphorylation. We demonstrate that when a Met residue(More)
Innate immunity relies on the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) located on the host cell's surface. Many plant PRRs are kinases. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis receptor kinase EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), which perceives the elf18 peptide derived from bacterial elongation factor Tu, is(More)
The receptor kinase BRI1 (BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1) is a key component in BR (brassinosteroid) perception and signal transduction, and has a broad impact on plant growth and development. In the present study, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis CaM (calmodulin) binds to the recombinant cytoplasmic domain of BRI1 in a Ca2+-dependent manner in vitro. In(More)
In metazoans, receptor kinases control many essential processes related to growth and development and response to the environment. The receptor kinases in plants and animals are structurally similar but evolutionarily distinct and thus while most animal receptor kinases are tyrosine kinases the plant receptor kinases are classified as serine/threonine(More)
Brassinosteroids promote soybean epicotyl elongation and regulate expression of BRU1, a gene with homology to xyloglucan endotransglycosylases (XETs). Recombinant BRU1 protein possesses XET activity and in situ hybridiza-tion reveals highest BRUl transcript accumulation in inner epicotyl tissue, particularly the phloem and paratracheary parenchyma cells.(More)
The Arabidopsis TCH4 gene is up-regulated in expression by diverse environmental and hormonal stimuli. Because TCH4 encodes a xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase, this change in expression may reflect a recruitment of cell wall-modifying activity in response to environmental stress and growth. How diverse stimuli lead to the common response of TCH4(More)
Protein kinase specificity is of fundamental importance to pathway regulation and signal transduction. Here, we report a convenient system to monitor the activity and specificity of recombinant protein kinases expressed in E. coli. We apply this to the study of the cytoplasmic domain of the plant receptor kinase BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), which(More)
Among several receptor-like kinases (RLKs), leucine-rich-repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) are a major group of genes that play crucial roles in growth, development and stress responses in plant systems. Given that they have several functional roles, it is important to investigate their roles in Brassica rapa. In the present study, 303 LRR-RLKs were(More)
BRI1 becomes highly phosphorylated in vivo upon perception of the ligand, brassinolide, as a result of autophosphorylation and transphosphorylation by its co-receptor kinase, BAK1. Important autophosphorylation sites include those involved in activation of kinase activity and those that are inhibitory, such as Ser-891. The inhibitory sites are(More)
Binding of brassinolide to the brassinosteroid-insenstive 1(BRI1) receptor kinase promotes interaction with its co-receptor, BRI1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BAK1). Juxtaposition of the kinase domains that occurs then allows reciprocal transphosphorylation and activation of both kinases, but details of that process are not entirely clear. In the present(More)