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Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential growth-promoting hormones that regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. Two leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) are involved in BR perception and signal transduction: brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1), which is the BR receptor, and its coreceptor BRI1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1). Both(More)
Lysine acetylation (LysAc), a form of reversible protein posttranslational modification previously known only for histone regulation in plants, is shown to be widespread in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Sixty-four Lys modification sites were identified on 57 proteins, which operate in a wide variety of pathways/processes and are located in various(More)
The receptor kinase BRI1 (BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1) is a key component in BR (brassinosteroid) perception and signal transduction, and has a broad impact on plant growth and development. In the present study, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis CaM (calmodulin) binds to the recombinant cytoplasmic domain of BRI1 in a Ca2+-dependent manner in vitro. In(More)
The activity of the dual-specificity receptor kinase, brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1), reflects the balance between phosphorylation-dependent activation and several potential mechanisms for deactivation of the receptor. In the present report, we elucidate a unique mechanism for deactivation that involves autophosphorylation of serine-891 in the(More)
The mechanisms involved in sensing oxidative signalling molecules, such as H2O2, in plant and animal cells are not completely understood. In the present study, we tested the postulate that oxidation of Met (methionine) to MetSO (Met sulfoxide) can couple oxidative signals to changes in protein phosphorylation. We demonstrate that when a Met residue(More)
The type-A ARRs of cytokinin two-component signaling system act as negative regulators for cytokinin signaling except for ARR4, but the molecular mechanism by which the A-type ARRs regulate cytokinin signaling remain elusive. To get insights into the molecular function of A-type ARR in cytokinin response, we sought to find the components that function(More)
Among several receptor-like kinases (RLKs), leucine-rich-repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) are a major group of genes that play crucial roles in growth, development and stress responses in plant systems. Given that they have several functional roles, it is important to investigate their roles in Brassica rapa. In the present study, 303 LRR-RLKs were(More)
The BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) receptor kinase has recently been shown to possess tyrosine kinase activity, and preventing autophosphorylation of the tyrosine-831 regulatory site by site-directed mutagenesis enhances shoot growth. In this study, we characterized the increased leaf growth of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants expressing(More)
Transgenic plants overexpressing AXR3/IAA17 were impaired in root growth. Specifically, they exhibited severe defects in lateral root and root hair development similar to the root phenotypes of epi-brassinolide (epiBL)-treated wild-type plants. Here, we investigated the involvement of AXR3/IAA17 gene expression in brassinosteroid (BR)-regulated root(More)
Although calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs or CPKs) are classified as serine/threonine protein kinases, autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues was observed for soybean CDPKβ and several Arabidopsis isoforms (AtCPK4 and AtCPK34). We identified Ser-8, Thr-17, Tyr-24 (in the kinase domain), Ser-304, and Ser-358 as autophosphorylation sites of(More)