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It is well known that immune responses in the intestine remain in a state of controlled inflammation, suggesting that not only active suppression by regulatory T cells plays an important role in the normal intestinal homeostasis, but also its dysregulation leads to the development of inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we demonstrate that the(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells have a potential to differentiate into various progenitor cells. Here we investigated the differentiation capacity of mouse ES cells into hepatocytes both in vitro and in vivo. During the culture of embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from ES cells, albumin (ALB) messenger RNA (mRNA) was expressed within 12 days after removal of leukemia(More)
A newly identified costimulatory molecule, programmed death-1 (PD-1), provides a negative signal that is essential for immune homeostasis. However, it has been suggested that its ligands, B7-H1 (PD-L1) and B7-dendritic cells (B7-DC; PD-L2), could also costimulate T cell proliferation and cytokine secretion. Here we demonstrate the involvement of PD-1/B7-H1(More)
Studies have shown that bone marrow cells have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types. Here we show that bone marrow cells can repopulate the epithelia of the human gastrointestinal tract. Epithelial cells of male donor origin were distributed in every part of the gastrointestinal tract of female bone marrow transplant recipients.(More)
The prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases is much lower in Asian countries, including Japan, than in Western countries, but it is rapidly increasing. However, no recent reports describe the current prevalence of these diseases in Japan, so we performed a descriptive epidemiological study to remedy this situation and to elucidate various characteristics(More)
Adult stem-cell therapy holds promise for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Here we describe methods for long-term expansion of colonic stem cells positive for leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5(+) cells) in culture. To test the transplantability of these cells, we reintroduced cultured GFP(+) colon organoids into(More)
The advent of biological therapy has revolutionized inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) care. Nonetheless, not all patients require biological therapy. Selection of patients depends on clinical characteristics, previous response to other medical therapy, and comorbid conditions. Availability, reimbursement guidelines, and patient preferences guide the choice(More)
Notch signaling regulates cell differentiation and proliferation, contributing to the maintenance of diverse tissues including the intestinal epithelia. However, its role in tissue regeneration is less understood. Here, we show that Notch signaling is activated in a greater number of intestinal epithelial cells in the inflamed mucosa of colitis. Inhibition(More)
BACKGROUND We developed novel magnetic resonance enterocolonography (MREC) for simultaneously evaluating both small and large bowel lesions in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of MREC by comparing results of this procedure to those of endoscopies for evaluating the small and large bowel(More)
Adalimumab is a fully human, monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor that is approved in Western countries for the treatment of moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC). This 52-week, phase 2/3, randomized, double-blind study evaluated adalimumab for induction and maintenance treatment in 273 anti-TNF–naive Japanese patients with UC(More)