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In order to understand the natural situation of rickettsiae in the ticks in Japan, the rickettsial genes, gltA gene, rOmpA gene, and 17-kDa gene, were amplified from the ticks by nested PCR. The prevalences of rickettsial gltA genes among Haemaphysalis formosensis, H. longicornis, H. megaspinosa, Ixodes ovatus, H. flava, H. kitaokai, and I. persulcatus were(More)
Regeneration and homeostasis in the adult intestinal epithelium is driven by proliferative resident stem cells, whose functional properties during organismal development are largely unknown. Here, we show that human and mouse fetal intestine contains proliferative, immature progenitors, which can be expanded in vitro as Fetal Enterospheres (FEnS). A highly(More)
BACKGROUND Adalimumab is a fully human, monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor that is approved in Western countries for the treatment of moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS This 52-week, phase 2/3, randomized, double-blind study evaluated adalimumab for induction and maintenance treatment in 273 anti-TNF-naive(More)
Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) in the intestine play important roles in the regulation of local immune responses. Although their functions have been studied in a variety of animal experiments, in vitro studies on spatiotemporal behaviors of IELs and their interaction with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have been hampered due to the lack of a(More)
Adult stem-cell therapy holds promise for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Here we describe methods for long-term expansion of colonic stem cells positive for leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5(+) cells) in culture. To test the transplantability of these cells, we reintroduced cultured GFP(+) colon organoids into(More)
The advent of biological therapy has revolutionized inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) care. Nonetheless, not all patients require biological therapy. Selection of patients depends on clinical characteristics, previous response to other medical therapy, and comorbid conditions. Availability, reimbursement guidelines, and patient preferences guide the choice(More)
PURPOSE The prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases is much lower in Asian countries, including Japan, than in Western countries, but it is rapidly increasing. However, no recent reports describe the current prevalence of these diseases in Japan, so we performed a descriptive epidemiological study to remedy this situation and to elucidate various(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells have a potential to differentiate into various progenitor cells. Here we investigated the differentiation capacity of mouse ES cells into hepatocytes both in vitro and in vivo. During the culture of embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from ES cells, albumin (ALB) messenger RNA (mRNA) was expressed within 12 days after removal of leukemia(More)
BACKGROUND Although the prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is reported to have reached a plateau in Western countries, it is increasing in Asia. The etiology of IBD is still under investigation. We performed an epidemiological study to clarify the characteristics of IBD in Japan, focusing on patients' family history. METHODS We obtained(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Cyclosporin A specifically suppresses hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in vitro at clinically achievable concentrations. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of action of cyclosporin A against HCV replication. METHODS The in vitro effects of cyclosporin A on HCV replication were analyzed using an HCV replicon system that(More)