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The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the neuroanatomical locus of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Here we demonstrate that an abrupt shift in the light/dark (LD) cycle disrupts the synchronous oscillation of circadian components in the rat SCN. The phases of the RNA cycles of the period genes Per1 and Per2 and the cryptochrome gene Cry1 shifted rapidly(More)
Mammalian circadian clocks consist of complex integrated feedback loops that cannot be elucidated without comprehensive measurement of system dynamics and determination of network structures. To dissect such a complicated system, we took a systems-biological approach based on genomic, molecular and cell biological techniques. We profiled suprachiasmatic(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the master circadian clock that regulates physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms in mammals. Prokineticin 2 (PK2) is highly expressed in the SCN, and its involvement in the generation of circadian locomotor activity has been reported previously. In the present study, using in situ hybridization methods, we(More)
Singularity behaviour in circadian clocks--the loss of robust circadian rhythms following exposure to a stimulus such as a pulse of bright light--is one of the fundamental but mysterious properties of clocks. To quantitatively perturb and accurately measure the dynamics of cellular clocks, we synthetically produced photo-responsiveness within mammalian(More)
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) neurons constitute a large group in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and it is thought that they are involved in the generation and entrainment of circadian rhythm. We have characterized these VIP-expressing neurons in rat SCN by their ability to induce the mammalian Period1 (Per1) gene in response to light exposure,(More)
The mammalian molecular clock is composed of feedback loops to keep circadian 24-h rhythms. Although much focus has been on transcriptional regulation, it is clear that posttranscriptional controls also play important roles in molecular circadian clocks. In this study, we found that mouse LARK (mLARK), an RNA binding protein, activates the(More)
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important mediators of signal transduction and are therefore potential targets for pharmacological therapeutics. Here, we report the identification and characterization of an orphan GPCR, termed GPRg1, which was found in the GenBank database following searches with GPCR query sequences. Quantitative PCR analysis(More)
Focusing on the electronics industry, this paper verifies and compares how bipolar R&D policy contributed to growth in productivity in Korea and Taiwan. Two implications are derived from the empirical results. First, in Korea, government's business group-centered R&D policy encouraged private R&D expenditure rather than public R&D infrastructure. Second,(More)
Living organisms detect seasonal changes in day length (photoperiod) [1-3] and alter their physiological functions accordingly to fit seasonal environmental changes. TSHβ, induced in the pars tuberalis (PT), plays a key role in the pathway that regulates vertebrate photoperiodism [4, 5]. However, the upstream inducers of TSHβ expression remain unknown. Here(More)
Prokineticins, multifunctional secreted proteins, activate two endogenous G protein-coupled receptors PKR1 and PKR2. From in situ analysis of the mouse brain, we discovered that PKR2 is predominantly expressed in the olfactory bulb (OB). To examine the role of PKR2 in the OB, we created PKR1- and PKR2-gene-disrupted mice (Pkr1(-/-) and Pkr2(-/-),(More)