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The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the neuroanatomical locus of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Here we demonstrate that an abrupt shift in the light/dark (LD) cycle disrupts the synchronous oscillation of circadian components in the rat SCN. The phases of the RNA cycles of the period genes Per1 and Per2 and the cryptochrome gene Cry1 shifted rapidly(More)
With the Akeno Giant Air Shower Array (AGASA), 581 cosmic rays above 10 19 eV, 47 above 4 × 10 19 eV, and 7 above 10 20 eV are observed until August 1998. Arrival direction distribution of these extremely high energy cosmic rays has been studied. While no significant large-scale anisotropy is found on the celestial sphere, some interesting clusters of(More)
Mammalian circadian clocks consist of complex integrated feedback loops that cannot be elucidated without comprehensive measurement of system dynamics and determination of network structures. To dissect such a complicated system, we took a systems-biological approach based on genomic, molecular and cell biological techniques. We profiled suprachiasmatic(More)
Ad4BP (or SF-1) has been identified as a transcription factor which regulates all the steroidogenic P450 genes in the peripheral organs, and is encoded by the mammalian homologue of Drosophila FTZ-F1 gene. mRNA coding for Ad4BP was detected in the hypothalamus and pituitary of rats by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical analyses using an antiserum to Ad4BP in the(More)
The relationship between placental antigen X-P2 (PAX)-immunoreactive glomeruli and intensely acetylcholinesterase-reactive (IAE) patchy regions was evaluated by comparison of neighboring cryostat sections of the rat olfactory bulb. Both groups of distribution show similar necklace patterns. Each IAE region consists of heterologous glomerulus-like structures(More)
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) neurons constitute a large group in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and it is thought that they are involved in the generation and entrainment of circadian rhythm. We have characterized these VIP-expressing neurons in rat SCN by their ability to induce the mammalian Period1 (Per1) gene in response to light exposure,(More)
Singularity behaviour in circadian clocks--the loss of robust circadian rhythms following exposure to a stimulus such as a pulse of bright light--is one of the fundamental but mysterious properties of clocks. To quantitatively perturb and accurately measure the dynamics of cellular clocks, we synthetically produced photo-responsiveness within mammalian(More)
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important mediators of signal transduction and are therefore potential targets for pharmacological therapeutics. Here, we report the identification and characterization of an orphan GPCR, termed GPRg1, which was found in the GenBank database following searches with GPCR query sequences. Quantitative PCR analysis(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the master circadian clock that regulates physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms in mammals. Prokineticin 2 (PK2) is highly expressed in the SCN, and its involvement in the generation of circadian locomotor activity has been reported previously. In the present study, using in situ hybridization methods, we(More)