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Two unidentified soluble carbohydrates were isolated from chrysanthemum (Dendranthema x grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura) leaves using HPLC. The compounds were identified as 1 L-chiro-inositol, called L-inositol (1) and scyllo-inositol, called scyllitol (2) from the results of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and CI-MS spectra. L-Inositol and scyllitol were distributed in(More)
Proteoglycans (PGs) are composed of a protein moiety and a complex glycosaminoglycan (GAG) polysaccharide moiety. GAG chains are responsible for various biological activities. GAG chains are covalently attached to serine residues of the core protein. The first step in PG biosynthesis is xylosylation of certain serine residues of the core protein. A specific(More)
The activation of extracellular receptor kinase (ERK) is one of the checkpoints to assess the activation of the classical Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. Therefore, we tested more than 100 selenium-containing compounds for their ability to activate the MAPK signal pathway. Among them, we found that three selenazoles,(More)
We examined the ability of the synthetic selenium compound, 2-(4-methylphenyl)-1,3-selenazol-4-one (hereafter designated 3a), to induce apoptosis in a human ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV3) and a human leukemia cell line (HL-60). Flow cytometry showed that 3a treatment induced apoptosis in both cell lines to degrees comparable to that of the positive(More)
We isolated eight phenolic constituents from Fragaria ananassa Duch. (strawberry) and determined their structures using 1D, 2D-NMR. Among the isolated compounds, linocinnamarin (LN), 1-O-trans-cinnamoyl-beta-d-glucopyranose (CG), and cinnamic acid (CA) exhibited antigen (Ag)-stimulated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. In order to(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by endothelial cells and macrophages play important roles in atherogenesis because they promote the formation of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL). Extracellular-superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is mainly produced by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is secreted into the extracellular space, and protects cells(More)
Microglia are the prime effector cells involved in immune and inflammatory responses in the central nervous system (CNS). In pathological conditions, microglia are activated to restore CNS homeostasis. However, chronic microglial activation endangers neuronal survival through the release of various toxic proinflammatory molecules. Thus, negative regulators(More)
The flavone 4',5,7-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone (tricin) present in rice, oats, barley, and wheat exhibits antigrowth activity in several human cancer cell lines and anti-inflammatory potential. However, the chemopreventive activity has not yet been elucidated in preclinical animal models of colorectal cancer. This study was designed to determine(More)
BACKGROUND We examined the anti-influenza virus activity of tricin, 4',5,7-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone, against five viruses: A/Solomon islands/3/2006 (H1N1), A/Hiroshima/52/2005 (H3N2), A/California/07/2009 (H1N1pdm), A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1pdm) and B/Malaysia/2506/2004 strains in vitro and against A/PR/8/34 virus in vivo. METHODS The effect of(More)