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The availability of two complete Helicobacter pylori genome sequences and recent studies of its population genetics have provided a detailed picture of genetic diversity in this important human gastric pathogen. It is believed that, in addition to genetic recombination, de novo mutation could have a role in generating the high level of genetic variation in(More)
The human gastric pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori lacks a MutSLH-like DNA mismatch repair system. Here, we have investigated the functional roles of a mutS homologue found in H. pylori, and show that it plays an important physiological role in repairing oxidative DNA damage. H. pylori mutS mutants are more sensitive than wild-type cells to(More)
Escherichia coli cells bearing certain mutations in rpsD (coding for the 30S ribosomal protein S4) show a ribosomal ambiguity (Ram) phenotype characterized by increased translational error rates. Here we show that spontaneous mutagenesis increases in Ram cells bearing the rpsD14 allele, suggesting that the recently described translational stress-induced(More)
Clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori is due to point mutation within the 23S rRNA. We examined the growth rates of different types of site-directed mutants and demonstrated quantitatively the competitive growth advantage of A-to-G mutants over other types of mutants by a multiplex sequencing assay. The results provide a rational explanation of(More)
Environmental and physiological stress conditions can transiently alter the fidelity of DNA replication. The DNA damage-mediated SOS response in Escherichia coli is the best-known example of such an 'inducible mutagenesis' or 'transient mutator' pathway. Emerging evidence suggests the existence of a number of other stress-inducible pathways that also affect(More)
As a first step towards describing the role of proteolysis in maintaining genomic integrity, we have determined the effect of the loss of ClpXP, a major energy-dependent cytoplasmic protease that degrades truncated proteins as well as a number of regulatory proteins, on spontaneous mutagenesis. In a rifampicin-sensitive to rifampicin-resistance assay that(More)
Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II (pol-II) is a highly conserved protein that appears to have a role in replication restart, as well as in translesion synthesis across specific DNA adducts under some conditions. Here, we have investigated the effects of elevated expression of pol-II (without concomitant SOS induction) on translesion DNA synthesis and(More)
The activated form of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) causes covalent modification primarily of guanine residues, leading to alkali-labile sites in DNA. A simple extension of the Maxam-Gilbert procedure for sequence analysis permits the identification of alkali-labile sites induced by AFB1 and determination of the frequency of alkali-labile AFB1 modifications at(More)