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Microglial cells are the resident macrophages in the central nervous system. These cells of mesodermal/mesenchymal origin migrate into all regions of the central nervous system, disseminate through the brain parenchyma, and acquire a specific ramified morphological phenotype termed "resting microglia." Recent studies indicate that even in the normal brain,(More)
Structure-function relationships of the sodium channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes have been investigated by the combined use of site-directed mutagenesis and patch-clamp recording. This study provides evidence that the positive charges in segment S4 are involved in the voltage-sensing mechanism for activation of the channel and that the region between(More)
The sodium channel is a voltage-gated ionic channel essential for the generation of action potentials. It has been reported that the sodium channels purified from the electric organ of Electrophorus electricus (electric eel) and from chick cardiac muscle consist of a single polypeptide of relative molecular mass (Mr) approximately 260,000 (260K), whereas(More)
The levels of the mRNAs encoding sodium channels I, II and III in various regions of the developing rat central nervous system (from embryonal day 10 to postnatal day 90) have been examined by blot hybridization analysis with specific probes. The three sodium channel mRNAs exhibit different temporal and regional expression patterns. The expression of sodium(More)
Distinct classes of acetylcholine receptor channels are formed when Xenopus oocytes are injected with combinations of the bovine alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta- or the alpha-, beta-, gamma- and epsilon-subunit-specific messenger RNAs. The conductance and gating properties of the two classes of channels, in conjunction with the developmental changes in the(More)
Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), a clinical subset of febrile seizures (FS), is characterized by frequent episodes beyond 6 years of age (FS+) and various types of subsequent epilepsy. Mutations in beta1 and alpha(I)-subunit genes of voltage-gated Na(+) channels have been associated with GEFS+1 and 2, respectively. Here, we report a(More)
In Shaker-group potassium channels the presence of a tyrosine residue, just downstream of the pore signature sequence GYG, determines sensitivity to tetraethylammonium (TEA). The KCNQ family of channels has a variety of amino acid residues in the equivalent position. We studied the effect of TEA on currents generated by KCNQ homomers and heteromers(More)
6B4 proteoglycan/phosphacan is one of the major phosphate-buffered saline-soluble chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans of the brain. Recently, this molecule has been demonstrated to be an extracellular variant of the proteoglycan-type protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTPzeta (RPTPbeta). The influence of the 6B4 proteoglycan, adsorbed onto the substratum, on cell(More)
Na(v)2/NaG is a putative sodium channel, whose physiological role has long been an enigma. We generated Na(v)2 gene-deficient mice by inserting the lacZ gene. Analysis of the targeted mice allowed us to identify Na(v)2-producing cells by examining the lacZ expression. Besides in the lung, heart, dorsal root ganglia, and Schwann cells in the peripheral(More)
Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for the Electrophorus electricus electroplax sodium channel indicate that this protein, consisting of 1,820 amino acid residues, exhibits four repeated homology units, which are presumably oriented in a pseudosymmetric fashion across the membrane. Each homology unit contains a unique segment with clustered positively(More)